FDA Study Calls for More Aggressive Opioid Regulation

By Pat Anson, Editor

A new report commissioned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is calling for a sustained and coordinated national campaign to combat the opioid crisis, including more aggressive regulation of opioids by the FDA and a “cultural change” in the prescribing of opioid medication,

The report by a special committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) focuses primarily on restricting the supply of prescription opioids, not illicit opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, which are now driving the so-called opioid epidemic.

"The broad reach of the epidemic has blurred the formerly distinct social boundary between prescribed opioids and illegally manufactured ones, such as heroin," said committee chair Richard Bonnie, a Professor of Medicine and Law at the University of Virginia.

“This report provides an action plan directed particularly at the health professions and government agencies responsible for regulating them. This plan aims to help the millions of people who suffer from chronic pain while reducing unnecessary opioid prescribing. We also wanted to convey a clear message about the magnitude of the challenge. This epidemic took nearly two decades to develop, and it will take years to unravel."

The report estimates that at least 2 million people in the U.S. have an “opioid use disorder” involving prescription opioids -- meaning they are addicted to prescription painkillers -- and almost 600,000 have an opioid use disorder involving heroin.

Although opioid prescribing has been declining and the number of overdose deaths from prescription opioids has remained relatively stable in recent years, deaths from illicit opioids such as heroin have tripled in the past decade.



The report claimed that many people who normally would use prescription opioids have transitioned to heroin because of the declining price of heroin and the introduction of abuse-deterrent formulations that make opioid medication harder to snort or inject. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has said there is no evidence to support the theory that legitimate patients are transitioning to heroin.

"Evidence does not support the hypothesis that initiatives intended to reduce opioid prescribing increase illicit opioid-related overdose at a population level," Deborah Dowell, MD, of the CDC recently wrote in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

The NASEM committee recommended that further efforts be made to restrict the supply of opioid medication, even though there is “limited evidence” that steps taken so far are working and may, in fact, be harming patients.

“Although more research is needed, limited evidence suggests that state and local interventions aimed at reducing the supply of prescription opioids in the community may help curtail access. Importantly, however, none of these studies investigates the impact of reduced access on the well-being of individuals suffering from pain whose access to opioids was curtailed,” the report states.

The NASEM report also recommends broader insurance coverage of non-opioid treatments.and better education of physicians in pain management.

“The committee’s recommended changes to provider education and payer policy should be accompanied by a change in patient expectations with respect to the treatment and management of chronic pain. Attention is not being paid to educating the general public on the risks and benefits of opioid therapy, or the comparative effectiveness of opioids with nonopioid or nonpharmacologic therapies,” the committee said.

The committee also recommended that the FDA conduct a full review of currently approved opioids and that it consider “public health considerations” in all of its regulatory decisions. Such a policy would require the agency to not only consider the safety and efficacy of opioids for legitimate pain needs, but also their impact on addicts and the illicit drug market.

“I was encouraged to see that many of NASEM’s recommendations for the FDA are in areas where we’ve already made new commitments,” FDA commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, said in a statement.  “Among these important new actions is our work to ensure drug approval and removal decisions are made within a benefit-risk framework that evaluates not only the outcomes of opioids when used as prescribed, but also the public health effects of the inappropriate use of these drugs.”

Last month the FDA asked that the opioid painkiller Opana ER be removed from the market, not because it was harming legitimate pain patients, but because addicts were abusing it and spreading infectious diseases through infected needles. It was the first time the agency has taken steps to remove an opioid from the market.

“These are just some of the important efforts we have underway. But to make a meaningful impact, this epidemic must be addressed as a public health emergency, and requires an all-of-the-above approach. As underscored in the NASEM report, the scope of this epidemic is so large, it’s going to require a coordinated effort that includes federal, state, and local partners,” Gottlieb said.

The NASEM study was funded by the FDA.

Poorly Treated Pain Linked to Opioid Misuse

By Pat Anson, Editor

A provocative new study has found that untreated or poorly treated pain is causing many young adults to self-medicate and turn to the black market for pain relief. The research adds to a growing body of evidence that efforts to limit opioid prescribing are leading to more opioid misuse and addiction, not less.

The study, published in the Journal of Addiction Medicine, involved nearly 200 young adults in Rhode Island who used opioid pain medication “non-medically” – meaning they didn’t have a prescription for opioids or used them in a way other than prescribed. About 85 percent had experienced some type of injury or health condition that caused severe pain.

Three out of four said they started misusing opioids to treat their physical pain. Most went to see a doctor to treat their pain, but about a third -- 36 percent of the women and 27 percent of the men -- said their doctor refused to prescribe a pain medication.

“In addition to being denied medication to treat severe pain by a physician, a significant percentage (20%) of young NMPO (non-medical prescription opioid) users who reported experiencing a high level of pain did not try to obtain treatment from a doctor for reasons including the belief that they would be denied prescription painkillers and/or having no health insurance,” said lead author Brandon D.L. Marshall, PhD, of Brown University School of Public Health.

“Pervasive negative perceptions of healthcare providers (and/or the medical system in general), and also issues related to accessing healthcare resources, may also underlie the high prevalence of professionally unmitigated physical pain in this population of young adults who use NMPOs in Rhode Island.”

Participants were between the ages of 18 and 29, used opioids at least once non-medically in the past 30 days, and were enrolled in the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS). Most also used heroin, marijuana, cocaine, LSD or another illegal drug more than once a week.

“Although this is a small study and we can't draw conclusions from it, I do think it sheds light on what can be unintended consequences if we are not willing to treat pain in people with increased risk factors and co-morbid mental health disorders,” said Lynn Webster, MD, past president of the American Academy of Pain Medicine. “These results may reflect the increased number of physicians who are unwilling to prescribe an opioid if there are risk factors or maybe just unwilling to prescribe an opioid.  It also shows that a consequence of not treating severe pain in people who also have significant risk of abuse may lead to illicit drug use and more harm."

Participants in the study who did not see a doctor for their pain had a variety of reasons:

  • 48% Thought they could handle the pain or manage it with over-the-counter drugs
  • 25% Thought they would be denied a prescription painkiller
  • 40% Don’t like seeing a doctor
  • 25% Had no health insurance

This was not the first study to find a correlation between poorly treated pain and drug abuse. A 2012 study of young adults who misused opioids in New York City and Los Angeles found that over half self-medicated with an opioid to treat severe pain. One in four had been denied a prescription opioid to manage severe pain.

A recent study of 462 adults who injected drugs in British Columbia found that nearly two-thirds had been denied prescription opioids. Nearly half had also been accused of drug seeking.

A recent survey of over 3,100 pain patients by PNN and iPain found that 11% had obtained opioids illegally for pain relief and 22% were hoarding opioids because they weren’t sure if they’d be able to get them in the future. Large majorities believe the CDC opioid guidelines were failing to prevent opioid abuse and overdoses (85%), and were harmful to pain patients (94%).

The Difference Between Addiction and Dependence

By Michael Thompson, Guest Columnist

When a person consumes alcohol or takes a mood altering medication, several things start to happen. First, they begin to develop a tolerance for it, so that over time it takes more of the drug to get the same effect. That can lead to abuse and addiction.

A person may also develop a dependence on a drug.  That means they have a clinical need for a medication.  

Many pain sufferers have found they need more opioid medication to provide relief from their pain, but that doesn’t mean they abuse or misuse it. It also doesn’t make them addicts.

I am dependent on my blood pressure medication to keep my blood pressure in check, but I’m not addicted it. Diabetics are dependent on their medication, but they are not addicted. 

Last year the CDC came out with opioid prescribing guidelines for general practitioners. But restricting the legal prescribing of these drugs will have no effect on the fact that most addicts don’t get their medication from Walgreens or Wal-Mart.  They get their drugs from Bobby the Rat behind Walgreens, or behind the pool hall from Billy the Snitch or Joe the Jerk.  What Bobby, Billy and Joe are selling is heroin, counterfeit painkillers and other illegal drugs.

What effect do these restrictive guidelines have on the illegal use of opioids?  None whatsoever.  The prescribing of opioid painkillers has been on the decline for years.  Most people who overdose are killing themselves with illegal drugs, not drugs obtained from their family doctor. 

Sure, everyone has heard of doctor shopping junkies who will go to an unscrupulous physician, who for $20 in cash will write an opioid prescription without even an examination. But the number of addicts pales in comparison to the number of legitimate chronic pain suffers who have been on these quality-of-life saving drugs for years without ever abusing their medications. Most have no idea where to find Bobby, Billy or Joe, or how to go about buying illegal drugs on the street.

Millions of older adults suffer from osteoarthritis and other neurologically painful conditions for which there is no cure, but there is treatment.  Many are on high doses of pain medication and have been taking these drugs for years, without ending up in the gutter shooting heroin or with a tag on the toe, lying on a tray in in the county medical examiner’s office.  They are not the ones causing headlines. 

Many doctors wrongly believe the CDC guidelines are rules that apply to all who prescribe opioid medication.  They fear that the DEA will come barging in if they go over a minimal amount, prosecute them and take away their license.  Their fear has left many chronic pain patients hanging out to dry, including some who will die because their pain is not being appropriately treated. 

If you have ever suffered from chronic, intense pain you are aware that it is all consuming.  It literally takes over your life.  Many, like me, who once led active lives on high doses of opioids, are now housebound, unable to shop, cook, clean or in many cases even just walk from the bedroom to the kitchen. 

It is a horrible existence, sitting in a chair all day, just trying to make it from morning to evening, and then unable to sleep because the pain is so intense.  Many of these once functional chronic pain sufferers have had their medication cut in half or more. 

As a personal example, I have two torn rotator cuffs that won’t heal.  I have had two surgeries that failed to correct the problem.  My surgeon says he won’t do any more surgeries because the rotator cuffs just continue to tear.  But that’s not all.  I have no cartilage left in my knees, a detached bicep tendon in my left elbow, and peripheral neuropathy in my feet and hands that causes them to burn and ache.  It’s been years since I was able to wear shoes. 

Before the CDC guidelines came out, I was on 6 pills of opioid medication a day.  I had been on this dose for five years and never once abused my medication or took more than was prescribed.  I was able to play golf and worked out three times a week, which helped me to keep my weight off.  When my pain specialist cut my dose in half, I literally crashed and burned.  Since then I have been practically home bound.  My story is similar to that of many other chronic pain sufferers.

So what do we do?  Practically every chronic pain patient has been running from one doctor to another, trying to find someone who will maintain them on the medication that helped them to live a somewhat normal life.  Imagine going to a new specialist, only to find the waiting room filled with dozens of other “new patients” trying to find someone, anyone, who wasn’t terrified of the DEA.

Is the CDC aware that their guidelines for primary care doctors have turned into rules for everyone?  Surely someone has told them about this.  Surely they know.

What’s to become of us?  Will we see a spike in the suicide rate of older adults who can no longer stand the daily struggle?  Will anyone care?

There are a lot of organizations that have tried to explain that the guidelines are not hard and fast rules and that they apply only to general practitioners. But fear is a stronger motivator than common sense. 

It cannot be that drug addicts are more important than patients. Don’t suffer in silence. Call, write a letter, or email your senators and congressman.

Don’t know who represents you in Congress? You can look them up by clicking here.

Michael Thompson is a retired clinical social worker and a licensed chemical dependency counselor. He lives in Texas.

Pain News Network invites other readers to share their stories with us.  Send them to:  editor@PainNewsNetwork.org

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Will Pain Patients Participate in Drug Take Back Day?

By Pat Anson, Editor

Tomorrow is National Prescription Drug Take Back Day, an annual effort by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration to give people an opportunity to safely dispose of their unneeded and expired medications.

Last year the DEA and its local law enforcement partners collected nearly 900,000 pounds of unwanted medication – about 447 tons – at almost 5,400 collection sites in all 50 states.

“These results show that more Americans than ever are taking the important step of cleaning out their medicine cabinets and making homes safe from potential prescription drug abuse or theft,” said DEA Acting Administrator Chuck Rosenberg in a news release.

One of the main goals of the DEA is to get patients to dispose of unneeded opioid medication, to prevent the drugs from being stolen, shared or sold.

But with opioid medciation becoming harder to obtain due to federal and state guidelines – and the DEA itself reducing the supply of hydrocodone, oxycodone, and other painkillers by 25 percent or more --   are chronic pain patients going to participate in Drug Take Back Day?

A recent survey of over 3,100 patients by Pain News Network and the International Pain Foundation suggests that many will not. And that government efforts to limit the supply of opioids have turned many responsible patients into hoarders.

Nearly one in four patients – 22 percent – say they are hoarding opioid medications because they’re not sure if they’ll be able to get them in the future.

Nearly half say they are being prescribed a lower dose since the CDC released its controversial opioid guidelines, and almost one in four say they are no longer prescribed any opioids.

“The CDC guidelines have led to a lot of confusion and fear for patients and their doctors. If anything, I ask for more pain medication now because I don't know how much longer I'll be able to obtain it,” one patient wrote.

“I never abused my opiates and in fact have hoarded 30 precious pills,” said another patient.

“I am 65 years old, well educated, and very disabled by (fibromyalgia). I endure the pain, for as long as possible, (and only) then take the meds due to having to hoard the medication,” wrote another.

“It's a no win situation," said a patient. "To be able to get proper relief from a new injury or if surgery comes up, one must hoard enough to treat the additional pain or suffer through it.”

Although the supply of opioid medication has been in decline for years, the news media often makes it sound like painkillers are still being given out like candy, often relying on outdated or inaccurate information that doesn't reflect the current environment.

“The amount of prescription opioids consumed has quadrupled since 1999, and deaths are even higher. Since eight out of ten new heroin users began by abusing prescription painkillers, and most get their pills from family and friends, controlling access to the pills becomes increasingly important,” Judy Stone, MD, wrote in a Forbes article promoting Drug Take Back Day.

Yes, Dr. Stone, it is true that opioid overdoses are soaring, but in recent years that is primarily due to heroin and illicit fentanyl, not prescription opioids. Even the CDC admits that painkillers are no longer driving the opioid epidemic.

The DEA also tells us that less than one percent of legally prescribed painkillers are diverted, which means that 99% of pain patients are responsible about their use and storage of pain medication. Only a small percentage of patients become addicted to opioids and even fewer go on to use heroin.

All of which isn’t to say that Drug Take Back Day is a bad idea. But let’s not use it as another opportunity to stigmatize chronically ill patients who happen to need pain medication.

To find a drug collection site near you, click here.

CDC: Painkillers No Longer Driving Opioid Epidemic

By Pat Anson, Editor

A top official for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has acknowledged that prescription painkillers are no longer the driving force behind the nation’s so-called opioid epidemic.

In testimony last week at a congressional hearing, Debra Houry, MD, Director of the CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, said that heroin and illicit fentanyl were primarily to blame for the soaring rate of drug overdoses.

“Although prescription opioids were driving the increase in overdose deaths for many years, more recently, the large increase in overdose deaths has been due mainly to increases in heroin and synthetic opioid overdose deaths, not prescription opioids. Importantly, the available data indicate these increases are largely due to illicitly manufactured fentanyl,” Houry said in her prepared testimony before the House Energy and Commerce Committee's Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee.

The CDC blamed over 33,000 deaths on opioids in 2015, less than half of which were linked to pain medication.  

While painkillers may be playing less of a role in the overdose epidemic, Houry believes pain medication is still a gateway drug for many abusers. She cited statistics from Ohio showing that nearly two-thirds of the people who overdosed on heroin or fentanyl received at least one opioid prescription in the seven years before their deaths.  

"The rise in fentanyl, heroin, and prescription drug involved overdoses are not unrelated,” Houry said. “While most people who misuse prescription opioids do not go on to use heroin, the small percentage (about four percent) who do account for a majority of people recently initiating heroin use.”

Houry also disputed reports that efforts to reduce opioid prescribing have led to increased use of illegal drugs. It was her office that oversaw the development of controversial CDC guidelines that discourage doctors from prescribing opioids for chronic pain. 



“Some have suggested that policies meant to limit inappropriate opioid prescribing have led to an increase in heroin use by driving people who misuse opioids to heroin,” Houry testified.  “Recent research, however, has indicated otherwise. One study found that the shift to heroin use began before the recent uptick in these policies, but that other factors (such as heroin market forces, increased accessibility, reduced price, and high purity of heroin) appear to be major drivers of the recent increases in rates of heroin use.”

The “recent research” Houry cited was a report published in the New England Journal of Medicine in January, 2016 – a full two months before the CDC opioid guidelines were even released. She offered no evidence to support her claim that the guidelines were having no impact on heroin use.

Some Patients Turning to Illegal Drugs

According to a recent survey of over 3,100 patients by Pain News Network and the International Pain Foundation, the CDC guidelines have reduced access to pain care, harmed many patients and caused some to turn to illegal drugs for pain relief.

Over 70 percent said their opioid doses have been reduced or cutoff by their doctors in the past year. And one out of ten patients (11%) said they had obtained opioids illegally for pain relief since the guidelines came out. 

“The one person I know who says the recent guidelines have helped (is) my neighbor who is a heroin dealer. He says business has quadrupled since doctors have started becoming too afraid to help people in pain,” one patient wrote.

“This has caused me far more pain and suffering in my life, and increased my stress and anxiety, and depression, because nobody seems to care that I suffer like this,” said another patient. “This has also caused me to turn to using heroin, because I have nothing left now at this point and cannot suffer like this.”

“Because people are unable to get adequate pain relief from prescribed medications due to the fear instilled to doctors by these ‘guidelines,' most people, in my experience, are turning to heroin. This explains not only an increase in overdoses but also an increase in suicide from chronic pain patients,” wrote another.

“I found it easier to get medications through the black market than through my doctor. I spend about $1,000 per month in medications through the black market, but in the end that is less than the deductible on my insurance. And they deliver to my house!” a patient said.  

“My fear right now is that I've been using medications I buy from a dealer. They appear to be real and thus far I've been OK, but I'm afraid that I may eventually hit a bad batch laced with fentanyl,” said a patient. 

Houry’s testimony came on the same day the Drug Enforcement Administration warned that counterfeit painkillers made with fentanyl have killed dozens of people in the Phoenix area.

The DEA said at least 32 deaths in the last 18 months in Maricopa County, Arizona have been linked to fake pills laced with fentanyl that were disguised to look like oxycodone tablets. In nearly 75% of the overdoses, examiners also found dipyrone (Metamizole), a painkiller banned for use in the U.S. since 1977. 

Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid 100 times more potent that morphine. It is sold legally in sprays, patches and lozenges to treat severe chronic pain.

counterfeit oxycodone (dea photo)

counterfeit oxycodone (dea photo)

The DEA says illicit batches of fentanyl are being made in China and exported to Mexico, where drug dealers mix it with heroin or turn it into counterfeit medication before smuggling it into the U.S.

The DEA released detailed demographic information on the age, sex and ethnicity of the people who overdosed in Arizona. It did not say how many of the dead were patients looking for pain relief.    

Heroin Tops Painkillers as Leading Cause of Overdoses

By Pat Anson, Editor

One in four drug overdoses in the United States can now be blamed on heroin, according to a new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that shows deaths linked to prescription painkillers falling.

The report found that fatal drug overdoses have more than doubled in the U.S. since 1999, with overdose death rates growing the fastest among whites and middle aged Americans.

In 2015, the overdose death rate was 16.3 per 100,000 people, up from 6.1 deaths per 100,000 in 1999. Ten percent of the deaths in 2015 were classified as suicides, 84% were accidental and the remainder undetermined.

The report by the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics further documents the changing nature of the nation’s drug problem. Overdose deaths involving natural and semisynthetic opioid painkillers – such as hydrocodone and oxycodone – remain high, but have fallen from 29% of all overdoses in 2010 to 24% in 2015.

At the same time, deaths involving heroin have tripled, from 8% of overdoses in 2010 to 25% in 2015 – making heroin the leading cause of drug overdoses.

Deaths involving synthetic opioids, a category that includes both fentanyl and tramadol, rose from 8% of overdoses in 2010 to 18% in 2015. The U.S. has seen a surge in illicit fentanyl being sold on the black market, where it is often mixed with heroin or used to make counterfeit painkillers. More recent data from some states, like Massachusetts and Ohio, show that deaths involving fentanyl now exceed those linked to heroin and painkillers.



Perhaps the only bright spot in the report is that overdose deaths involving methadone have declined from 12% of deaths in 2010 to 6% in 2015.

The CDC analysis is based on death certificate codes, a database that is not always considered reliable because of wide variability in reporting from state to state.

“At autopsy, the substances tested for and the circumstances under which the toxicology tests are performed vary by jurisdiction,” wrote lead author Holly Hedegaard, MD, a medical epidemiologist with the National Center for Health Statistics.

“Additionally, drug overdose deaths may involve multiple drugs; therefore, a single death might be included in more than one category when describing the percentage of drug overdose deaths involving specific drugs. For example, a death that involved both heroin and fentanyl would be included in both the percentage of drug overdose deaths involving heroin and the percentage of drug overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids excluding methadone.”

Other highlights from the report:

  • West Virginia, New Hampshire, Kentucky and Ohio had the highest overdose rates in 2015
  • Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota and Texas had the lowest overdose rates
  • The age-adjusted overdose death rate among whites in 2015 was 240% higher than in 1999
  • The overdose rate for whites was nearly double that of blacks and three times higher than Hispanics
  • Overdose deaths grew among all age groups, but surged over 500% for adults aged 55 to 64

The report helps document a disturbing increase in deaths among middle-aged white Americans, first reported by Princeton University researchers in 2015.

Anne Case and Angus Deaton estimated that a "lost generation" of nearly half a million Americans died from a quiet epidemic of chronic pain, suicide, alcohol abuse and drug overdoses from 1999 to 2013.  

“This change reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States; no other rich country saw a similar turnaround,” Case and Deaton reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis.”

The rising death rate for middle-aged whites was accompanied by declines in physical health, mental health and employment, as well as increases in chronic joint pain, neck pain, sciatica and disability.

Indians Manager Battles Back from Chronic Pain

By Pat Anson, Editor

Cleveland Indians manager Terry Francona – who has led the Indians to their first World Series since 1997 -- has struggled for decades with chronic pain from knee, wrist and shoulder injuries.

His story is an inspirational one to pain sufferers who have also dealt with the stigma associated with chronic pain and the use of opioid pain medication.

Francona may be the front runner for American League manager of the year, but it wasn’t too long ago that he was barely able to walk after complications from knee replacement surgeries left him in severe pain with blood clots and staph infections.

His managerial career also seemed finished after rumors surfaced that he abused pain medication while managing the Boston Red Sox.

Francona was upfront about his health problems and use of painkillers like oxycodone and Percocet in his book with Dan Shaughnessy; “Francona: The Red Sox Years.”

“I think I probably should have died with all that happened,” Francona said of one extended hospitalization in 2002, when his right leg almost had to be amputated.

“There were a couple of nights in the hospital where I was thinking, I can’t take this anymore.  The nurses would come running in because I’d stop breathing. I was in bad shape. There were people around who did not think I was going to make it. I know I came real close to losing the leg.”

Pain medication helped him survive the ordeal.



“I lived on it at that time,” Francona recalled in the book. “When I left the hospital, I was on heavy-duty drugs, and it was tough.”

Francona recovered and resumed his career as a baseball coach. In 2004, he was hired as manager of the Red Sox and led the team to its first World Series title in 86 years. They added a second title in 2007. Through it all, Francona was still in pain and taking so much medication he would sometimes joke about it. He also started hoarding pain pills.

When one of Francona’s adult daughters found a bottle in his home with 100 Percocet pills, she convinced her father to see a pain management specialist and enter a confidential drug treatment program managed by Major League Baseball.  

That was in 2011, the year Francona’s marriage and his career as Red Sox manager unraveled at the same time. A team that many predicted would win yet another World Series suffered an historic collapse. Stories surfaced about players drinking beer, eating fried chicken and playing video games in the clubhouse during games. Anonymous sources pinned much of the blame on Francona, who was unceremoniously dumped by the Red Sox at the end of the season.

“Team sources said Francona… appeared distracted during the season by issues related to his troubled marriage and to his health,” reported the Boston Globe. “Team sources also expressed concern that Francona’s performance may have been affected by his use of pain medication.”

Francona felt betrayed by the team and by the insinuation that he was an addict.

“I don’t have a drug problem, that’s pretty obvious. I don’t drink that much, but I joke about it a lot. Anybody that knew me knew that I had taken more painkillers in ’04, because my knees were shot,” he said.

Francona was hired as manager by the Indians in 2012 and has guided them to four consecutive winning seasons. The Indians swept Francona’s old club – the Red Sox – to win the American League’s divisional series this month. They went on to beat the Toronto Blue Jays to win the American League pennant and now face the Chicago Cubs in the World Series.

This is Francona’s 16th year managing in the big leagues. At 57, he doesn’t talk much about his health problems – preferring instead that the attention be focused on his players. In addition to pain medication, Francona reportedly takes blood thinning medication and wears compression sleeves on his legs to improve blood circulation.  

An Open Letter to DEA About Banning Kratom

By Rebecca Shanks, Guest columnist

Dear DEA,

Several years ago, I was diagnosed with Ehlers Danlos syndrome and spondylolysis, which in turn caused degenerative disc disease. Like most people, I was prescribed narcotic painkillers.

At first, they prescribed MS Contin. That's a pretty powerful drug for a first time narcotic user, and it made me sick. I took back the pills and handed them to the doctor, who replaced it with methadone.

There still, I couldn't do much except zone out on the couch and sleep. I was lucky if they didn't send me to the restroom vomiting. I got tired of that, and they prescribed Percocet and Vicodin. I was to take the Percocet three times a day, and if I had breakthrough pain, I was to take a Vicodin. 



After a while, like so many chronic pain sufferers, I became more than dependent on painkillers, got addicted, and found my life spiraling out of control.

In 2008, I lost everything and everyone. I lost my husband. I lost my children. I lost my home and wound up moving into a hotel room.

Finally, I was approached by my grandfather, God bless his soul, and he had a heart-to-heart talk with me that something had to change. I took his advice with tears in my eyes, and I went to rehab.

After rehab, while I was clean, the pain was becoming unbearable. Tylenol, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs that were given to me in place of narcotics did absolutely nothing.

I was scared. I knew that it would only be a matter of time before I had to go back on the pills and run the risk of addiction yet again.

That's when I met a woman who ran an herb shop and she told me about kratom. I had nothing to lose by trying it, and when I did, I was more than surprised. It worked. My pain was gone and I didn't have any of the horrible side effects of the pills that were pushed down my throat. It truly was a miracle. 

When I was in pain, I would take kratom and a few minutes later would be able to easily go back to whatever it was I was doing. There was no sleeping all day. There was no drunken fog. I have been using kratom for a few years now.  When I don’t take it, on days that my pain is not that bad, I feel nothing more than a headache.

I got my life back. I got my children back. My ex-husband and I are on very good terms, residing in the same vicinity with nary an argument between us. I have even chased the dream of being an author and have already published one book under a pen name, with two more in the works that will be released soon. I am now a productive member of society, and the mother I should have always been.

DEA, if you ban kratom, what will happen to me? Will I have to go back to the pills, run the risk of addiction once again, and be unable to do anything aside from sleep all day, or zone out on the couch? 

Will I have to just suck up the pain? In that scenario, I will still be in bed all day, screaming and crying out of sheer misery, wanting it to end. My children do not need to bear witness to that.

In any of those scenarios, I will no longer be productive, and I see myself winding up on disability, unable to work. I don't want that. The taxpayers don't want that either, not when I am doing so well on my own.

But if I choose the other route, and continue to use kratom, I become a felon. I run the risk of being shipped off to prison, for doing nothing more than trying to manage my pain while still being a productive member of society. 

So what would you have us do, DEA? Which path should I choose? Right now, I'm not sure. All I know is that I am afraid of what will happen to my life and my family should you choose to continue with this ban. 

By banning kratom, you are not hurting the drug addicts that you have a war with. You are hurting every day, productive citizens. You are hurting mothers, fathers, grandparents and other people, who you would never even know took kratom unless they told you. The plant is that mild.

DEA, I beg you to please stop this. You can stop this. Please listen to the people. 

Rebecca Shanks is the mother of two children and lives in Illinois. Under the pen name J. Theberge, she published her first book, Subject Alpha, and is currently working on two other books. When she isn't working, Rebecca is active in her children's education and promoting autism awareness.

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