By Pat Anson, Editor
Warning that "everyone may be at risk," the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ordered warning labels for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) to be strengthened to indicate they increase the risk of a fatal heart attack or stroke.
The warning applies to ibuprofen, Advil, Motrin and other popular pain relievers sold over-the-counter, as well as prescriptions drugs containing NSAIDs. Many multi-symptom cold and flu products also contain NSAIDs.
The agency said studies have shown the risk of serious side effects can occur in the first few weeks of using NSAIDs and could increase the longer people use the drugs. The revised warning does not apply to aspirin.
“There is no period of use shown to be without risk,” says Judy Racoosin, MD, deputy director of FDA’s Division of Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Addiction Products.
The FDA said people who have a history of heart disease, particularly those who recently had a heart attack or cardiac bypass surgery, are at the greatest risk for a serious cardiovascular event associated with NSAIDs. But the risk is also present for people who don't have heart problems.
“Everyone may be at risk – even people without an underlying risk for cardiovascular disease,” Racoosin said.
NSAIDs are widely used to treat everything from fever and headache to low back pain and arthritis. They are in so many different pain relieving products that health officials believe many consumers may not be aware how often they use NSAIDs.
“Be careful not to take more than one product that contains an NSAID at a time,” said Karen Mahoney, MD, deputy director of FDA’s Division of Nonprescription Drug Products.
The labels for both prescription and over-the-counter NSAIDs already have information warning of heart attack and stroke risk. In the coming months, FDA will require drug manufacturers to update their labels with more specific information warning that the risk is heightened even in the first few weeks of use.
“Consumers must carefully read the Drug Facts label for all nonprescription drugs. Consumers should carefully consider whether the drug is right for them, and use the medicine only as directed. Take the lowest effective dose for the shortest amount of time possible," Mahoney said.
Several recent studies have found that NSAIDs increase the risk or heart attack and other health problems. The exact cause is unclear, but researchers believe NSAIDs may raise blood pressure and fluid retention, which can affect how the heart functions.
A 2013 study published in The Lancet warned that high doses of NSAIDs may increase the risk of heart problems by about a third. In a review of over 600 clinical trials involving more than 353,000 patients, researchers found that NSAIDs doubled the risk for heart failure. People on high doses of the drugs also had up to four times greater risk for bleeding ulcers or gastrointestinal problems.
Another large study at the University of Florida in 2014 found that the over-the counter pain reliever naproxen raises the risk of a heart attack, stroke and death in postmenopausal women. Naproxen is a NSAID and the active ingredient in Aleve and other pain relievers commonly used to treat arthritis.
Studying data from over 160,000 postmenopausal women participating in a study funded by the National Institutes of Health, researchers estimated that using naproxen just twice a week raises the risk of cardiovascular problems by about 10 percent. The same study did not find a higher risk of a heart attack, stroke and death associated with ibuprofen, another type of NSAID.