By Pat Anson, Editor
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is refusing to disclose what outside advisors it consulted with during the drafting of its controversial opioid prescribing guidelines for physicians. The proposed guidelines, which were released this week, have angered many pain patients who think they could lead to sharp reductions in the prescribing of opioids for both acute and chronic pain.
“The anonymity of the reviewers engaged in this process is important during the ongoing development of these guidelines, as it allows reviewers to provide honest and independent comment and feedback,” said Courtney Lenard, a health communication specialist in the CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. The panel of advisors is known within the CDC as the Core Expert Group.
“The Core Expert Group includes a limited number of CDC scientific staff, primary care professional society representatives, state agency representatives, experts in guideline development methodology, and other subject experts,” said Lenard.
Pain News Network has learned through a reliable source that about 15 people are in the Core Expert Group, only one of which is a physician with expertise in pain management.
The other members were “physicians and non-physicians, many of whom have been involved in efforts to rein in (opioid) prescribing.”
“Input from the pain management community in developing the guideline was, essentially, non-existent,” said the source, who identified Jane Ballantyne, MD, a professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at the University of Washington as the sole member with pain management expertise.
“As a member of the Core Expert Group, I have been asked not to comment on the (final) guideline until it is released,” said Ballantyne in an email to Pain News Network.
Ballantyne last year was named President of Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing (PROP), a controversial organization that has lobbied Congress and criticized the Food and Drug Administration for not doing more to limit opioid prescribing.
Asked if he was also a member of the CDC’s Core Expert Group that drafted the guidelines, PROP founder Andrew Kolodny said that he had no comment. Kolodny, who is chief medical officer for Phoenix House, which operates a chain of addiction treatment clinics, also said he would have no comment on the guidelines themselves.
Phoenix House was recently the subject of a highly critical report by Reuters, which claimed that in recent years the publicly funded institution “has consistently failed to provide the quality of care necessary to help addicts kick the habit.”
CDC Guidelines for Prescribing
Now that the draft guidelines have been released, the CDC plans to consult with a “Stakeholder Review Group” that includes over a dozen professional organizations involved in the field of pain management. Only two “stakeholders” – the American Chronic Pain Association and the American Cancer Society – represents pain patients. A full list of the Stakeholder Review Group will be listed at the end of this article.
Secrecy has surrounded the development of the CDC's guidelines from their inception and continues today. The CDC refused to provide an advance copy of the guidelines before they were released Wednesday during an online “webinar.” Even after their release, only a summary of the guidelines is available on a CDC website and the agency is no longer accepting public comments on the guidelines after a 48-hour window of opportunity.
“Given the public health need to respond to the prescription overdose epidemic, it was critical to identify a public participation method and comment period that was rapid and efficient so that comments could be immediately provided to peer reviewers for their consideration,” explained the CDC’s Lenard in an email.
The first prescribing guideline recommends “non-pharmacological therapy” as the “preferred” treatment for chronic non-cancer pain, and states that opioids should only be prescribed if the benefits of reducing pain outweigh the risk of addiction and overdose.
Other guidelines recommend urine drug testing of all patients who are prescribed opioids, both for illicit drugs and prescribed medications. Smaller doses and quantities of opioids are also recommended – including a “three or fewer days” supply of opioids for most types of acute pain. The guidelines also recommend that benzodiazepines not be prescribed concurrently with opioids. A complete list of the guidelines can be found here.
“We’re concerned about some of the provisions in here, and by the fact that such guidelines issued by CDC are often accepted, sometimes rather uncritically, by state health departments and licensing boards, and thus quickly become standards of practice,” said Bob Twillman, Executive Director of the American Academy of Pain Management, which is one of the stakeholder groups that will be consulted by the CDC.
“I was generally satisfied with the proposed guidelines,” said Pete Jackson, president of Advocates for the Reform of Prescription Opioids, who lost his teenage daughter to a single dose of OxyContin in 2006.
“My main concern at this stage is how the federal government will reconcile these guidelines with the FDA REMS guidelines for long-acting opioids, which were voluntary guidelines issued a few years ago by FDA and have not been effective at deterring the overprescribing,” Jackson told Pain News Network. “Hopefully the CDC's guidelines will supersede the wholly inadequate FDA guidelines. I would also like to see the CDC implement a very intensive training program to support the implementation of their new guidelines."
Pain Patients Worried
Pain patients – including many who already find it difficult to get opioids for pain relief – are angered and worried by the CDC’s recommendations.
“This terrifies me. I take two Norco per day, it barely keeps my pain at tolerable levels so I can do fun things like shower and get out of bed. I already jump through hoops to get my prescriptions every month.” said Cynthia Mittel. “To arbitrarily take away my only chance to have a life halfway worth living is evil and very short-sighted! Government at its finest. Guess we'll all be getting our drugs off the street now!”
“This is such a slap in the face to the millions of pain sufferers in this country," wrote Sue B. "We are not addicted to opioids! We need them in order to live. Would you think of putting these strict guidelines on insulin? It is not our fault drug abusers use our meds, our lifelines, to sell and get high, yet we are constantly punished.”
“We are not treated properly now. We get drug tested and insulted now. I cannot believe this is even coming up after the last change in guidelines,” wrote Kryste Southwick. “Why do junkies have more meaning than chronic pain patients? Why are you stripping us of what little lives we can have? Do your research people. If this happens there will be A LOT of suicidal blood on YOUR hands.”
“This is wrong of the CDC to try and force their guidelines in people who live with chronic pain. I am monitored by my rheumatologist for my pain medication. I do not abuse my medication nor am I addicted to them,” said Suzanne Stevenson. “These guidelines the CDC want to impose are wrong and unfair to so many people. What right does the CDC have in this matter? None!”
Many have wondered why the CDC is acting as the lead agency in creating the prescribing guidelines – a role traditionally played by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA has yet to release a statement about the CDC guidelines or say what role – if any – it had in drafting them.
"CDC and FDA are federal partners and collaborate on many different issues and at many different levels, prescription drug overdose being one of them. FDA has been involved in the review process of the guidelines and we will continue to work with them on this prescription drug overdose epidemic," said the CDC's Lenard.
CDC officials have long been critical of opioid overprescribing and have repeatedly cited a study that claims over 16,000 Americans are killed annual by overdoses linked to pain medications.
"CDC’s top focus in developing these guidelines is improving patient safety and reducing the risk that any more patients will die from an overdose related to mixing medications, using alcohol while on treatment, or taking a dangerous dose of opioids," said Lenard.
"We want to provide tools that primary care physicians can use to help determine when and how to safely initiate, maintain, and discontinue use of opioid therapy for chronic pain outside the setting of end-of-life care. We understand that pain is a complex problem and that some patients will require treatment with a pain specialist. These guidelines are not intended to guide that care. We want patients currently on opioid therapies to work with their doctors to stay safe while managing their pain."
According to the National Institutes of Health, only about 5% of patients taking opioids as directed for a year end up with an addiction problem.
The CDC said it will now consult with the “stakeholders” group --and will then submit the guidelines to a peer review panel -- before releasing a final version in January, 2016.
Members of the stakeholders group include the following: American Academy of Neurology; American Academy of Pain Management; American Academy of Pain Medicine; American Academy of Pediatrics; American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; American Cancer Society; American Chronic Pain Association; American College of Medical Toxicology; American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology; American Geriatrics Society; American Hospital Association; American Medical Association; American Pain Society; American Society of Addiction Medicine; American Society of Anesthesiologists; American Society of Hematology; American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians; and Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing.