By Stephen Ziegler, PhD, Guest Columnist
A recent effort by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to reduce prescription drug overdose may actually lead to increases in pain, injury, and death from opioids by over-relying on the use of dosage levels in prescribing policies.
Last month, in a webinar that reminded me of Get Smart’s "Cone of Silence", the CDC introduced draft guidelines for the prescribing of opioid pain medication.
The actual guidelines themselves were not made available in advance, nor do they appear on the CDC website.
However, attendees fortunate enough to successfully log into the webinar could hear the guidelines read to them by the CDC (and perhaps see the guidelines if the technology was working).
While the secrecy associated with the release of the draft guidelines raises several concerns, so do the guidelines themselves, especially the guideline relating to dosage which states: “Providers should implement additional precautions when increasing dosage to 50 or greater milligrams per day in morphine equivalents and should avoid increasing dosages to 90 or greater milligrams per day in morphine equivalents.”
Although dosage is a legitimate concern, there are a myriad of problems associated with the adoption of arbitrary dosage thresholds in prescribing guidelines. In fact, the CDC is not alone; many states throughout the U.S. continue to adopt a variety of dosage thresholds that, once reached, will trigger specific actions or recommendations.
And while those subsequent recommendations or actions may be consistent with good medical practice, the use of arbitrary dosage triggers are problematic because: 1) there may be good reasons for not waiting until a daily dose is reached before taking certain actions; 2) there is no direct cause and effect relationship between dosage and overdose in legitimate pain treatment; 3) converting to morphine equivalency is an error-prone process that can lead to over-dosing, under-dosing, and even under-treated pain; 4) arbitrary dosage thresholds fail to consider individual patient characteristics; 5) many prescribers may consider the threshold a ceiling and will seek to avoid approaching it to avoid regulatory scrutiny and thereby under-medicate and under-treat pain; and, 6) poly-pharmacy and poly-substance abuse, not dosage standing alone, plays a far more significant role in unintentional overdose.
In the October issue of Pain Medicine, I discuss these and other concerns regarding the proliferation of dosage thresholds across the United States and their potential to increase pain and opioid-related mortality.
Prescription drug overdose is a local and national problem, but so too is the under-treatment of pain. While the CDC has paid a lot of attention to preventing prescription drug overdose, they also need to start paying attention to the other epidemic: the 100 million Americans who are impacted by chronic, long-term pain. What we need are balanced approaches, and any prescribing guideline that is veiled in secrecy, or fails to consider the unintended consequences on the treatment of pain, has no place in clinical practice or public policy.
Stephen J. Ziegler, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Public Policy at Indiana University-Purdue University in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Dr. Ziegler conducts research, provides continuing medical education, and consults on the topics of opioid risk management and the impact of drug regulation and enforcement on the treatment of pain. He has been published in several peer reviewed journals and serves as a reviewer for several journals such as the Journal of Opioid Management, Pain Medicine, Cancer, and the Journal of Medical Ethics.
Prior to obtaining his law degree, Dr. Ziegler worked as a police detective and as a Task Force Officer for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.
The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.