Studies Promote Epidurals Without Explaining Risks

By Pat Anson, Editor

Two recent studies presented at a meeting of anesthesiologists are promoting the benefits of epidurals to relieve pain during child birth. But a woman whose spinal cord was permanently damaged by an epidural says new mothers need to be told more about the risks involved.

First, about those studies.

A study of over 200 women presented at the annual meeting American Society of Anesthesiologists found that epidurals – in addition to relieving labor pain – also appear to lower the risk of postpartum depression for new mothers.

"Labor pain matters more than just for the birth experience. It may be psychologically harmful for some women and play a significant role in the development of postpartum depression," said Grace Lim, MD, director of obstetric anesthesiology at Magee Women's Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

"We found that certain women who experience good pain relief from epidural analgesia are less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms in the postpartum period."

The second study found that women who chose nitrous oxide – laughing gas – to manage labor pain get only limited relief. And a majority wind up getting an epidural anyway once the pain starts.

"Nitrous oxide is gaining interest among expectant mothers as an option to manage labor pain and is becoming more widely available in the United States," said Caitlin Sutton, MD, an obstetric anesthesiology fellow at Stanford University School of Medicine. "However, we found that for the majority of patients, nitrous oxide does not prevent them from requesting an epidural. While nitrous oxide may be somewhat helpful, but epidural anesthesia remains the most effective method for managing labor pain."

Epidurals are effective at relieving pain, but how safe are they?

“By far the gas is safest form of pain relief for women during labor, along with other non-invasive methods,” says Dawn Gonzalez, whose spinal cord was accidentally punctured by an epidural needle during childbirth. “Epidural anesthesia is the most popular form of anesthesia during labor, but women are rarely warned about the long term, devastating effects and consequences that some women will encounter.”

The injury to Gonzalez’s spine during the botched epidural led to the development of adhesive arachnoiditis, a chronic inflammation that caused scar tissue to form and adhere to the nerves in her spine. She now suffers from severe chronic pain and is disabled. Gonzalez says the pain she experiences today is far worse than the temporary labor pain she would have experienced without an epidural.

“The blind insertion of the epidural during birth is basically playing roulette for spinal damage. Normally birthing mothers are told the only side effect possible during epidurals is a spinal headache that lasts a few days. True informed consent is missing from the equation,” says Gonzalez.

“I often wish I could go back and decline the epidural because arachnoiditis has completely turned my life and that of my family upside down. I had so many dreams for the future with my children, and there is so much I miss out on and will never reach due to being injured during my epidural.”

The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) has long defended the use of epidurals, calling the risk of complications a “myth.” The ASA has called the procedure “one of the most effective, safest and widely used forms of pain management for women in labor.”

A study of over a quarter million epidurals by the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology also found the risk of complications to be low. An “unrecognized spinal catheter” – what Dawn Gonzalez experienced – occurred in about one in 15,435 deliveries.

She thinks there are better and safer alternatives.

“Laughing gas, Lamaze, hypnotism, meditation, water birthing and even some medications are the absolute safest and most effective forms of labor pain relief. Every woman deserves to know that when she opts for any kind of invasive spinal anesthesia, the risks are very grave and by far much more common than anybody realizes,” Gonzalez says. “We have a tendency to think it will ‘never happen to me,’ but you do take very serious risks for yourself and your child when opting for an obstetric epidural.”

One hundred years ago, laughing gas was widely used in hospitals to relieve pain during childbirth, but it fell out of favor as more Caesarean sections were performed and women needed more pain relief.  Nitrous oxide helps reduce anxiety and makes patients less aware of pain, but it does not eliminate it. 

In the laughing gas study of nearly 4,700 women who gave birth vaginally at a U.S. obstetric center, only 148 patients chose to use nitrous oxide. Nearly two out of three wound up getting an epidural once labor began.

Epidurals May Harm Newborn Babies

By Pat Anson, Editor

We’ve written before about the risks associated with epidural injections used to relieve back pain and pain during childbirth. Now comes word that epidural analgesia may also have adverse effects on newborns.

A large study by researchers at the University of Granada in Spain found that babies born after their mothers were given epidurals had a small decline in their overall health, were less likely to begin early breast feeding, and were significantly more likely to be admitted to neonatal intensive care. Resuscitation was also significantly more frequent in babies born after epidural analgesia.

The study, published in Midwifery magazine, involved over 2,600 babies born between 2010 and 2013 at San Juan de la Cruz hospital in Úbeda, a province of Jaén, Spain

"A series of adverse effects have been observed both on the mother and on the baby,” said lead author Concepción Ruiz Rodríguez, a professor in the Department of Nursing of the University of Granada.

“Adverse effects observed on the baby are attributed to a direct pharmacological effect, due to a placental transmission of the drug administered to the mother, or due to an indirect secondary effect as a consequence to the physiological changes the drug causes in the mother, such as hormonal changes."

Researchers measured the overall health of the babies by using Apgar index values, a quick test applied to newborn babies to assess their general health. They found the Apgar values were “slightly but significantly lower” in newborns whose mothers had epidurals.

“Epidural analgesia may have adverse effects on newborns, although the risks are low, and further research is required to elucidate the causal nature of this relationship,” said Ruiz Rodriguez. "For that, we consider that it's important that both mothers and health professionals (obstetricians and midwives) know and have in mind those risks when the time for taking a decision comes.”

Epidurals involve the injection of steroids, opioids or other analgesic drugs through a catheter. The injection blocks the transmission of pain signals through nerves in the spinal cord.

Epidurals are commonly used to relieve pain during childbirth and, while the risks are low, they can result in complications for the mother such as headaches, difficulty breathing, seizures, or damage to the spinal cord. Drugs used during epidurals also pass through the placenta to the baby.

Epidurals injections are given to millions of Americans each year for back pain and there is growing controversy over their use. A study by federal researchers last year found that steroid injections provide limited or no relief  from radiculopathy and spinal stenosis, two conditions that cause low back pain.

A number of prominent physicians have told Pain News Network the shots are overused, with some patients getting dozens of injections, which raises their risk of complications.