By Pat Anson, PNN Editor
A century ago, nitrous oxide – more commonly known as laughing gas -- was widely used in American hospitals to relieve labor pain during childbirth. But laughing gas fell out of favor as more Caesarean sections were performed and women opted more often for epidural injections for pain relief.
Nitrous oxide is still commonly used in Europe and Australia to manage labor pain, and is beginning to regain popularity in the U.S. The inhaled anesthetic gas helps reduce anxiety and makes patients less aware of their pain, but does not eliminate it.
“Nitrous oxide is easy for patients to use, relatively inexpensive, and will attract more patients looking for a birthing center, or more homelike type of delivery experience,” says Barbara Orlando, MD, an assistant professor of anesthesiology, perioperative and pain medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.
Orlando and her colleagues reviewed the medical records of nearly 2,000 women who used nitrous oxide during labor in five large university hospitals.
Many gave laughing gas high marks for pain control. The mean patient satisfaction rate for nitrous oxide was 7.4 (on a scale of 0 to 10). Their babies also had no adverse health effects.
Curiously, however, nearly 70 percent of the women who tried nitrous oxide switched to an epidural or another pain management method.
“The high patient satisfaction rate and safety profile that we found should motivate other institutions nationwide to offer nitrous oxide as a pain management option to women in labor,” said Orlando, who presented her findings at the annual meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA).
“Although nitrous oxide did not prevent women in labor from requesting other pain management options like an epidural, we received positive feedback from patients who said they like laughing gas as an option to manage their pain.”
Epidurals injections allow mothers to stay awake and alert throughout delivery. But they are not without risks. A poorly placed needle can damage the spine permanently, as Dawn Gonzalez discovered a few years ago.
“The blind insertion of the epidural during birth is basically playing roulette for spinal damage. Normally birthing mothers are told the only side effect possible during epidurals is a spinal headache that lasts a few days,” said Gonzalez, who developed adhesive arachnoiditis, a chronic and disabling inflammation of her spinal nerves.
The ASA has defended the use of epidurals, calling them “one of the most effective, safest and widely used forms of pain management for women in labor.”
In a large study of over a quarter million epidurals, the risk of complications was found to be low. An “unrecognized spinal catheter” – what Dawn Gonzalez experienced – occured in only one of every 15,435 deliveries. She thinks there are better odds and safer alternatives.
“Laughing gas, Lamaze, hypnotism, meditation, water birthing and even some medications are the absolute safest and most effective forms of labor pain relief. Every woman deserves to know that when she opts for any kind of invasive spinal anesthesia, the risks are very grave and by far much more common than anybody realizes,” Gonzalez said.