CDC Head Wants Opioid Guidelines for Acute Pain

By Pat Anson, Editor

When Dr. Robert Redfield was appointed as director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in March, he told CDC staff the opioid epidemic was “the public health crisis of our time” and pledged to “bring this epidemic to its knees.”

After three months in the job, Redfield has finally given his first media interview and provided some vague details about how he will tackle the opioid crisis. He told The Wall Street Journal that the CDC would develop opioid prescribing guidelines for short-term acute pain and use a new enhanced data system to track overdoses in hospital emergency rooms.

“We’re going to continue to expand our efforts,” Redfield said. “We’re going to be able to track this epidemic in real time, which I think is really important to be able to respond.”

The CDC has been roundly criticized in the past for how it tracked and counted opioid overdoses – erroneously mixing illicit fentanyl deaths with those linked to prescription opioids – so any improvement in that area is welcome.

 DR. ROBERT REDFIELD.

DR. ROBERT REDFIELD.

But for the agency to even consider prescribing guidelines for acute pain is puzzling – considering how disastrous its guidelines have been for chronic pain. Since their botched release during a sketchy webinar in 2015, the CDC’s “voluntary” guidelines for primary care physicians have been widely adopted as mandatory by insurers, regulators and providers – who have used them to deny treatment, abandon patients, and forcibly taper many off opioid prescriptions. The DEA even targets physicians who exceed the CDC's recommended dosage for opioids. 

“I was forced tapered. How could the CDC take over my medical treatment? How is this legal? The CDC had never assessed me yet changed my pain medicine,” PNN reader Patti asks.  “I've gone from being an active woman to spending my days in bed or on the couch. I live in non-stop pain 24/7.”

Patti is not alone. In a PNN survey of over 3,100 patients last year, over 90% said the CDC guidelines have been harmful to patients and nearly half said it was harder for them to find a doctor willing to treat their pain. Ten percent don't have a doctor at all.

There are also troubling reports of patients committing suicide because their pain is so poorly treated.

"My son committed suicide 4 months after his docs took him off all pain meds," said Rick. "I knew right then the reason for his suicide. But, it goes unrecognized by doctors and other officials, and his suicide autopsy mentioned nothing about pain meds. This will continue, suicides vastly increased until post medicinal suicides (are) recognized and accounted for."

"My 70 year old mother committed suicide last month after being cut off at pain management. Although she could barely walk and was in constant pain, she was the most positive person. Something needs to be done," said Janie Jacobs.

“Wishing for it to be over is a pervasive daily thought. I have to work diligently to chase those thoughts away,” pain patient Leanne Gooch wrote in a recent guest column for PNN. “My doctors can’t or won’t treat me because my chronic pain contributed to all the addicts all over the world. I’ll admit that’s a ridiculous statement when they admit they’ve gone too far in denying me proper medical care.”   

The quality of pain care in the U.S. has gotten so bad that Human Rights Watch launched an investigation into the treatment of pain patients as a possible human rights violation.

“What kind of quality of life do I even have when I can barely move?” asks Amy, who suffers from myofascial pain and is confined to a wheelchair.  “I really want to lead a functional life and to have a family. It's not a lot to ask. I'll never have it this way, though. Please give me back some tramadol. Please allow me hydrocodone if I really need it. Please help me. Please help all of us.”

The CDC guidelines have also failed to achieve a key objective. While opioid prescribing has declined (a trend that began years before the guidelines were released), opioid overdoses have spiked higher, driven by a scourge of illegal opioids sold on the black market. Americans are now more likely to die from an overdose of illicit fentanyl than they are from pain medication.

Several states and insurers have already adopted regulations limiting the initial use of opioids for acute pain to a few days supply. The CDC has weighed in on the issue as well.

"When opioids are used for acute pain, clinicians should prescribe the lowest effective dose of immediate-release opioids and should prescribe no greater quantity than needed for the expected duration of pain severe enough to require opioids. Three days or less will often be sufficient; more than seven days will rarely be needed," the agency says in its chronic pain guidelines. 

According to a spokesperson, the CDC was working with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to develop a report reviewing the effectiveness of opioid and non-opioid therapies for acute pain.

"If an update to the CDC Guideline is warranted based on the scientific findings of these AHRQ efforts, CDC will undertake the scientific process to update the guideline, possibly including expanded guidance treating acute pain," Courtney Leland told PNN in an email.

Why does Dr. Redfield want to develop guidelines for acute pain? In his interview with The Wall Street Journal,  Redfield said his interest stems, in part, from a close family member’s struggle with opioid addiction.

“I think part of my understanding of the epidemic has come from seeing it not just as a public-health person and not just as a doctor,” he said. “It is something that has impacted me also at a personal level.”

The epidemic is also impacting chronic pain patients, in ways the CDC has yet to admit or acknowledge.