By Pat Anson, Editor
Two new studies are adding to the growing evidence that links pain with economic, social and racial differences in the United States.
Researchers at Indiana University-Purdue University say African-Americans use coping strategies that often make their pain worse; while researchers at the University of Virginia found that people who feel that their financial outlook is shaky experience more physical pain.
“The past decade has seen a rise in both economic insecurity and frequency of physical pain. The current research reveals a causal connection between these two growing and consequential social trends,” wrote lead author Eileen Chou of the University of Virginia in the journal Psychological Science.
Chou and her colleagues looked at six different studies and found that economic insecurity produces physical pain, reduces pain tolerance, and predicts consumption of over-the-counter pain relievers. The researchers believe economic insecurity also leads people to feel a lack of control in their lives, which activates psychological processes associated with anxiety, fear, and stress.
Data from a consumer panel of nearly 34,000 individuals revealed that households in which both adults were unemployed spent 20% more on over-the-counter pain relievers than households in which at least one adult was working.
Smaller studies also found that unemployment was correlated with reports of pain. And people who recalled periods of economic instability reported almost double the amount of physical pain than those who recalled economically stable periods.
“Overall, the findings show that it physically hurts to be economically insecure,” Chou said.
Financial stress and economic insecurity were also blamed in a recent landmark study by Princeton University researchers who found that nearly half a million middle aged white Americans died prematurely in the last 15 years. The rising death rate for whites was also attributed to drug and alcohol poisoning, suicide, chronic pain and disability.
Blacks and Whites Cope with Pain Differently
The researchers at Indiana University-Purdue University also used a meta-analysis (a study of studies) to reach their conclusion that black and white Americans cope with pain differently. The review of 19 studies, which included 2,719 black and 3,770 white adults, is the first to quantify the relationship between race and the use of pain-coping strategies.
"Coping" was broadly defined as the use of behavioral and cognitive techniques to manage stress.
Blacks were significantly more likely to use prayer and hoping as pain-coping strategies than whites, according to researchers. Blacks were also more likely than whites to think about their pain in a catastrophic manner.
"Our findings suggest that blacks frequently use coping strategies that are associated with worse pain and functioning," said Adam Hirsh, a clinical health psychologist. "They view themselves as helpless in the face of pain. They see the pain as magnified -- the worst pain ever. They ruminate, think about the pain all the time, and it occupies a lot of their mind space."
While that kind of coping might be considered a negative approach to pain, Hirsch says it also may have benefits.
“It may also be a potent communication strategy -- it tells others in a culture with a strong communal component that the person is really suffering and needs help. Thus, it may be helpful in some ways, such as eliciting support from other people, and unhelpful in other ways. In future studies, we will give this more nuanced investigation," said Hirsch, whose study is published in the Journal of Pain.
Ignoring pain rather than allowing it to interfere with the task at hand was the only coping strategy employed by whites more than blacks. Several studies reviewed by researchers found that ignoring strategies are associated with less pain, whereas praying, hoping and catastrophizing are associated with higher pain levels.
"How people think about their pain matters," said Hirsh. "For example, religion can be used as a passive coping strategy -- asking a higher authority to take the pain away -- or as an active coping strategy -- asking to be given strength to manage pain.”
Blacks reported higher levels of pain than whites for a number of conditions including arthritis, post-operative pain and lower-back pain. Blacks also experience greater pain in both clinical and experimental studies. Blacks reported less-effective pain care, are unable to return to work for a longer time due to pain, and have worse functional outcomes.
Hirsch says understanding how different racial groups cope with pain may improve pain care and support individually tailored treatment.