Can Melatonin Put Your Chronic Pain to Sleep?

By A. Rahman Ford, PNN Columnist

Melatonin is popularly known as the sleep hormone. Less known is its potential to alleviate chronic pain and inflammation.

Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain. During the day the pineal gland is inactive, but at night it begins to produce melatonin and helps us sleep.

As a supplement, melatonin is widely promoted for its efficacy as a sleep aid. However, its role in reducing inflammation – a major contributor to chronic pain – may be much more important. Many chronic pain conditions are a result of underlying inflammation.

In a recent Nature article, melatonin was called a “master regulator” of inflammation. Several studies have shown that melatonin can regulate activation of the immune system, reducing chronic and acute inflammation.

Research shows that melatonin supplements can modulate inflammation by acting as powerful antioxidants and free radical scavengers. Uncontrolled free radicals in the body can lead to oxidative stress, which can cause inflammation and culminate in diseases that cause chronic pain.

There is a large body of evidence that melatonin is a potent antioxidant, even more potent than vitamins C and E.  It’s been successfully used to treat fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome, diseases associated with high levels of oxidative stress.


Melatonin is also a strong antimicrobial, and emerging research shows that some chronic inflammatory conditions may be caused by infections. One study found melatonin effective in treating certain drug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Similar results were found when testing ten different pathogens, including Escheria coli and Salmonella typhinurium, with melatonin.

Melatonin and Chronic Pain

A therapeutic role for melatonin in the treatment of painful autoimmune conditions has been theorized.  A 2013 study noted that melatonin plays a role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus. In animal models of these diseases, melatonin supplements were found to have protective effects. A 2019 review concurred, concluding that melatonin can serve as a new therapeutic target in treating autoimmune diseases.

A review of the scientific literature on chronic pain syndromes found evidence of melatonin’s efficacy as an analgesic in several conditions including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic back pain. Studies also showed melatonin’s effectiveness in treating cluster headaches ad tension headaches.

A small clinical trial of 63 females with fibromyalgia found that melatonin, alone or in combination with the antidepressant amitriptyline, significantly reduced pain when compared to amitriptyline use alone. The authors concluded that the melatonin treatment had a direct effect on the regulation of pain.

There has been some evidence that melatonin supplements can help reduce lower back pain. In a 2015 study, researchers found a significant reduction in pain intensity during movement and at rest in patients with back pain.

Melatonin has also been successful in treating migraines. In an open-labeled clinical trial of 34 patients suffering from migraine, 30 mg of melatonin given 30 minutes before bedtime was found to reduce headache intensity as well as frequency and duration, with significant clinical improvement after one month.

Although the scientific evidence is only slowly emerging, melatonin is a widely-available, inexpensive and safe supplement that may aid you in your fight against chronic pain.

A. Rahman Ford.jpg

A. Rahman Ford, PhD, is a lawyer and research professional. He is a graduate of Rutgers University and the Howard University School of Law, where he served as Editor-in-Chief of the Howard Law Journal.

Rahman lives with chronic inflammation in his digestive tract and is unable to eat solid food.

The information in this column is for informational purposes only and represent the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Can a Rare Moss Be Used As a Painkiller?

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Cannabis, kava and kratom have some competition. Swiss scientists say a rare moss-like plant could be another natural substance that can treat pain and inflammation. And it’s completely legal.

Radula perrottetii is a member of the liverwort family that only grows in Japan, New Zealand, Tasmania and Costa Rica. It produces a molecule called perrottetinene (PET) that is remarkably similar to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient found in cannabis. 

"It's astonishing that only two species of plants, separated by 300 million years of evolution, produce psychoactive cannabinoids," says Jürg Gertsch, PhD, a professor in the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine at the University of Bern.



A few year ago, Gertsch learned that dried samples of liverwort were being advertised on the internet as incense that produces so-called "legal highs." At the time, little was known about the pharmacological effects of PET, so Gertsch and his colleagues set out to discover how the substance works.

In studies on laboratory mice, they found that PET reaches the brain very easily and that it activates the same cannabinoid receptors that THC does. PET also has a strong anti-inflammatory effect, which makes it potentially useful as a painkiller.

Because PET produces only a mild degree of euphoria, researchers believe it has low abuse potential and fewer side effects than THC.  

Gertsch and his colleagues recently published their findings in the journal Science Advances. They plan to conduct more extensive animal testing before any clinical trials on humans. And that could take years.

In the meantime, liverwort is already being used for medicinal purposes. “Despite serious safety concerns,” WebMD says liverwort is used to treat gallstones, liver conditions, varicose veins and menopause. Others uses include “strengthening nerves” and stimulating metabolism.

Amazon and eBay advertise liverwort – not as medicine – but to help decorate terrariums and aquariums.

3 Tips to Help Control Inflammation

By Ellen Lenox Smith, Columnist

No matter what chronic illness or condition you may have, we all have issues with inflammation that can add to our pain levels. Inflammation not only causes fluid retention, but can bring on headaches, body aches, brain fog and even subluxations, especially for those of us living with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Did it ever occur to you that something you are ingesting might actually be creating havoc in your body? There is a strong possibility that certain foods and medications may not be right for your system. 

Food Sensitivity

For years, I seemed to be having bad reactions to certain foods, so I began investigating what the problem was.

First, I started with a skin test. I was shocked when I was told everything came back normal, but I knew that just couldn’t be right. So I went to a dietician and had a food sensitivity blood test called the Mediator Release Test (MRT). It worked like magic. The test identified the foods that were not being metabolized correctly by my body, thus causing inflammation and a significant amount of discomfort and pain.

For me the biggest culprits were garlic, ginger and broccoli, but that doesn’t mean they’ll cause the same problems for you. Some people have trouble with nightshade vegetables, such as potatoes, peppers, tomatoes and eggplant.

After getting my test results, I have to admit it wasn’t fun having to “say no” to foods that I loved. But within a short time, weight from bloating was reduced, I could think clearly again, and felt an overall body change in the right direction.

Depending on your level of sensitivity, after avoiding the identified foods for a few weeks or even months, you might be able to successfully reintroduce the foods back into your diet. You should talk to a dietician first, though.

Drug Sensitivity

Another irritant to the body can be an unknown sensitivity to medication. Many of us have no choice but to depend on medications for our medical issues. However, as with foods, you could also be dealing with medication sensitivity.

It was a surgeon from Wisconsin who first educated me about a DNA drug sensitivity test that can identify, through a simple swab in the mouth, what isn’t safe for your body

At the time I was going to a hospital in Wisconsin for surgeries. They couldn’t find anything to help me with pain control, because I seemed to be reacting to everything they tried. I’d reacted badly to medications all of my life, and with a major surgery to face, my surgeon suggested we find out what I was compatible with.

The drug sensitivity test showed I was not able to metabolize aspirin or Tylenol, let alone any of the opiates. But there were two medications I could utilize for pain, and using them helped make the surgery successful.

The beauty of using this test is that you can use it for life. Each time a new medication comes into question, it can be determined in advance whether you are compatible with it. If not, it’ll show what can be substituted instead.

What a dream it would be if all babies had this test at birth to prevent the reactions many of us have had to live through! Imagine taking a new medication knowing it is good for you, will not cause inflammation, or increase the discomfort that raises your pain level.

Candida Infestation

The third thing that you might want to consider, if you suspect something is triggering your inflammation, is candida. We all have yeast in our system, but did you know it gets fed and increases if the body is taking in too much sugar and/or carbohydrates?

If you have tried to lose weight and feel like you almost starved yourself, but still get on a scale and see the pounds going up, then you might have a candida infestation. If you have foul gas, sugar cravings, brain fog, and a general increase of discomfort, candida may also be the culprit.

Your primary care doctor can order a blood test to confirm the presence of candida and there is medication that can eliminate the infestation from your body. For me, as soon as I took the first Nystatin pill at night, I woke up the next morning already seeing a weight loss and an improvement in my overall well-being, including a clearer head!

I hope these three suggestions are helpful. If you have another idea or suggestion, please let us know what that is! We need to pay it forward and help each other improve the quality of our lives.

Ellen Lenox Smith suffers from Ehlers Danlos syndrome and sarcoidosis. Ellen and her husband Stuart live in Rhode Island. They are co-directors for medical marijuana advocacy for the U.S. Pain Foundation and serve as board members for the Rhode Island Patient Advocacy Coalition.

For more information about medical marijuana, visit their website.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

New Molecules May Combat Immune System Disease

By Pat Anson, Editor

A team of international researchers may have unlocked an ancient secret in the human immune system that could lead to new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

"Innate immunity is so old it goes all the way down to frogs, fish and even insects," says Professor Matt Cooper of the University of Queensland’s Institute of Molecular Bioscience.

Cooper and colleagues at Kings College London and the U. S. National Institutes of Health say the human immune system is basically comprised of two parts: the adaptive immune system, which produces antibodies against infection, and a very ancient pathway, known as the innate immune system.

"It stops us getting infections, but it also drives a lot of inflammatory diseases,” explains Cooper.  "So, in one case it's keeping us alive by stopping the bugs getting us, but if it goes wrong, we start to get diseases like arthritis, multiple sclerosis and IBDs such as colitis.

"Researchers always thought key components of these pathways acted alone, but our teams have discovered they can communicate and work together."

IBD is a chronic and painful inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammation affects the entire digestive tract in Crohn’s disease, but only the large intestine in ulcerative colitis.

The study findings, published in the journal Science, may have significant implications for treating millions of people who suffer from inflammatory diseases.

"Inflammation in diseases such as colitis occurs when the immune system is activated inappropriately, and causes symptoms including pain, diarrhea, fever and weight loss," said Cooper. "Current treatments are not always effective, possibly because they are only blocking one of the key pathways and inflammation still occurs through the other pathway."

Researchers have developed two small molecules that each block one pathway.

activated immune cells

activated immune cells

"We have tested these molecules and the results show that they both reduce inflammation when administered separately," Cooper said. "This work is still in the early stages but we are hopeful our ongoing research will lead to more effective treatments for the millions of IBD sufferers.

"It may give other scientists opportunities to develop new drugs against these diseases."

A healthy immune system is activated when the body recognizes invading microbes and alerts immune cells, such as T cells. Disease begins when the immune response spirals out of control and begins attacking healthy tissue.  

Researchers at New York University’s Langone Medical Center are also working on a theory known as the "hygiene hypothesis" that may explain why there is an increase in inflammatory bowel disease worldwide. They believe intestinal parasites and bacteria that humans were long exposed to are beneficial and help balance the immune system.

Sanitary practices have sharply reduced these parasitic and bacterial infections in developed nations, which now have some of the highest rates of Crohn’s and colitis. Researchers believe the immune response to infections triggers the growth of Clostridia, a bacterium known to counter inflammation.

Chronic Fatigue Patients ‘Disrespected and Rejected’

By Pat Anson, Editor

An independent panel convened by the National Institutes of Health is calling for major changes in the way the healthcare system treats people suffering from chronic fatigue – a complex and poorly understood disorder that affects an estimated one million Americans, most of them women.

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by extreme fatigue, chronic pain, impaired memory, insomnia, and other symptoms that do not improve with rest.  Many of the symptoms overlap with other diseases and disorders -- including fibromyalgia, depression, and inflammation – making a correct diagnosis even more difficult.

There is also a stigma often associated with chronic fatigue.

“Both society and the medical profession have contributed to ME/CFS patients feeling disrespected and rejected. They are often treated with skepticism, uncertainty, and apprehension and labeled as deconditioned or having a primary psychological disorder,” the panel states in its final report.

“ME/CFS patients often make extraordinary efforts at extreme personal and physical costs to find a physician who will correctly diagnose and treat their symptoms while others are treated inappropriately causing additional harm.”

Although the economic burden of chronic fatigue is estimated at between $2 billion and $7 billion annually, the panel said there has been “minimal progress” in improving the state of science for ME/CFS over the last 20 years. There are no pathogens linked to chronic fatigue, no diagnostic tests and no known cures.

"We need to learn more about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this disease and how immunologic, neurologic, and other factors contribute to ME/CFS," said Carmen Green, MD, the panel’s chair and professor of anesthesiology, obstetrics and gynecology, and health management and policy at the University of Michigan Schools of Medicine and Public Health.

"We need to fund more studies that can be easily reproduced, and we must gain a better understanding of how ME/CFS affects people and their families in terms that are clinically meaningful to them. In addition, we need to have a greater understanding of the impact of ME/CFS across the life span, especially in underserved and vulnerable populations."

What little research that has been done has focused on Caucasian, middle-aged women.  The panel said new studies need to include children, minorities, men, patients living in rural areas, and those who are homebound.

To address these knowledge gaps, the panel is calling for more research and opportunities for new investigators to study ME/CFS. It also called for the creation of a repository of biological samples from chronic fatigue patients (e.g., serum, whole blood, RNA, DNA) to support new studies.

In addition, the panel recommended new educational training courses to help health care providers diagnose and treat ME/CFS.

"ME/CFS exists, and despite the absence of a clear definition, an estimated one million Americans are affected by it," said Green. "In order to develop primary prevention strategies and effective drug treatments, there needs to be a clear understanding of its causes and the populations it affects."

Much of the information gathered by the panel came during a public workshop and public comment period in December of last year. The five member panel, which included Penney Cowan of the American Chronic Pain Association, operated as an independent commission. Its final report is not a policy statement of the NIH or the federal government, and there are no guarantees its recommendations will be funded or acted upon.