Fentanyl and Heroin Linked to 70% of Overdoses

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released another report today documenting the changing nature of the overdose crisis and the decreased role that prescription opioids have in drug deaths.  About 70% of fatal overdoses in 2016 involved either illicit fentanyl or heroin.

CDC researchers used “literal text analysis” to study death certificates from 2011 to 2016, looking for drugs listed as the cause of death, significant conditions contributing to that death, and a description of how the death occurred.  Alcohol, nicotine and other non-drug substances were not included in the analysis.

Researchers found that the opioid painkiller oxycodone was the most frequently mentioned drug involved in 2011 overdoses, but by 2016 oxycodone had fallen to 6th place, behind fentanyl, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and the anti-anxiety drug alprazolam (Xanax).

TOP 10 DRUGS MENTIONED IN 2016 OVERDOSE DEATHS

Source: CDC

CDC researchers noted that many overdose deaths involve multiple drugs.

“We’ve had a tendency to think of these drugs in isolation. It’s not really what’s happening,”  lead author Holly Hedegaard, PhD, told the Huffington Post.

For example, fentanyl and cocaine were mentioned in nearly 4,600 deaths, while oxycodone and alprazolam were mentioned in more than 1,500 deaths. 

The CDC has already released a preliminary estimate on overdoses for 2017 using a different form of analysis. But the results are largely the same. Over 70,200 people died of a drug overdose in 2017 – the highest number on record. Deaths involving fentanyl and other synthetic, mostly black market opioids surged 45 percent, while deaths involving natural or semisynthetic opioids, mostly painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, remained flat.      

The number of opioid prescriptions in the United States has been falling since 2011, but opioid medication remains a favorite target for regulators. The DEA has proposed another round of cuts in the supply of opioid pain medication – a 10% reduction in manufacturing quotas in 2019 for oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine and three other opioids. Some of the medications are already in short supply, forcing hospitals to use other pain relievers to treat surgery and trauma patients.

The Trump Administration says opioid pain relievers are “frequently misused” and that reducing their supply will help prevent addiction, abuse and overdoses. There is little or no evidence that is true.