Does Chronic Pain Affect Memory?

By Ann Marie Gaudon, PNN Columnist

Pain is a complex experience. It not only affects us biologically, but we also experience it cognitively and emotionally. Does it affect our memory? You bet it does.

Chronic pain patients often complain of memory problems and there are numerous studies which confirm these challenges are indeed a reality.

Twenty-four studies evaluating working memory (WM) and/or long-term memory (LTM) in chronic pain groups and control groups were reviewed last year by French researchers. WM was defined as the processing and manipulation of information within a short period of time (a few seconds), while LTM involved the “storage” of knowledge and memories over a long period of time.

Concentration and memory deficits on a daily basis were the most frequently reported cognitive difficulties. Memory complaints included forgetfulness and problems performing everyday tasks and conversations.

Emotional distress common to pain patients, such as depression, anxiety and rumination (the inability to divert attention away from pain), was also found to play an important role in memory difficulties.

One study compared two groups of pain patients who had minor or major memory complaints. Between the two, no significant differences were found with regard to age, gender, education level, marital status, medication use, long-term pain or pain intensity.


However, patients in the major memory complaint group suffered from emotional distress to a significantly greater degree. They also reported a lack of family support and discontent with their social and sexual lives. These were noted as additional daily sources of suffering for this group.

Adding to potential negative effects on memory were comorbidities which many pain syndromes share. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and chronic fatigue could alone or combined affect memory. A major concern expressed was the need to disentangle pain-related cognitive effects from those resulting from these comorbidities.

Medications and Memory

The review really became interesting when it came to medication, because researchers found contradictory results. One European study reported that opioids exerted a negative effect on working memory -- finding a clear association between higher levels of analgesics and perceived memory dysfunction in chronic back pain patients. Some studies confirmed that medication can have a negative effect on memory, but others showed improvements in memory following analgesic treatment. That suggests that effective pain relief may also reverse pain-induced memory impairment.

The researchers concluded it was unclear whether analgesic medications are beneficial or detrimental, because both scenarios were reported.

Age was also identified as an important factor in the relationship between chronic pain and memory, but not in the way you may think. Surprisingly, it was shown that an increase in age did not additionally affect memory performance.

One study reported that gender and age significantly affected memory decline in those suffering from chronic migraine headaches. Cognitive decline in migraineurs was greater among younger individuals, and females showed greater decline during headache intervals than males. It was acknowledged that gender as a factor in pain-related experience is poorly investigated.

Like all reviews, this one has its limitations. There was a “large heterogeneity” of tests within the 24 studies. This diversity of tests did not allow for a suggestion of which memory processes were altered by chronic pain itself. The study populations were also heterogeneous regarding pain etiologies and an assessment of the intensity of pain was not performed.

Studies which included a mix of chronic pain disorders did not provide data on whether specific memory impairments were more frequently observed in specific disorders. The authors suggest there is a need for comparative studies across pain-related disorders in order to determine whether impairments are pain-related or a consequence of other pathophysiological features.

These numerous studies confirmed the memory decline that is often reported by chronic pain patients. Even if these effects are mild, the impact on quality of life could be substantial as they may indeed worsen suffering including depression, anxiety, and limitations on activity.

Researchers suggested that examining memory function should be part of the clinical assessment of chronic pain patients. The spectrum of cognitive difficulties must become acknowledged and understood in order to find ways to overcome them.

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Ann Marie Gaudon is a registered social worker and psychotherapist in the Waterloo region of Ontario, Canada with a specialty in chronic pain management.  She has been a chronic pain patient for over 30 years and works part-time as her health allows. For more information about Ann Marie's counseling services, visit her website.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Is Ketamine an Opioid?

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

A drug used to treat depression and pain is being touted as possible solution to the opioid crisis.

This week a South Carolina drug maker said it would partner with a medical device company to sell ketamine in take home medication bags that can be administered by an ambulatory pain pump. The idea is to give patients recovering from surgery a safer alternative to opioids.

“We are proud to partner with InfuTronix Solutions to deliver opioid-free pain medication to patients across the country,” Nephron Pharmaceuticals CEO Lou Kennedy said in a statement. “The overuse of opioids is a crisis in America. Non-narcotic pain management is a cost-saving way that companies like ours can help save lives.”

Non-narcotic? Opioid-free?

That’s not what a team of researchers at Stanford University concluded last year after studying how ketamine works in the brain. In a small clinical study, they gave a dozen patients diagnosed with depression a combination of ketamine and naltrexone – an opioid-receptor blocker. To their surprise, naltrexone stopped ketamine from working as an antidepressant.

In effect, the researchers discovered that ketamine works just like oxycodone, hydrocodone and other painkillers – by activating opioid receptors in the brain. 

“Everything that I was taught, and everything that I’ve always taught my students — all of the evidence supports the fact that ketamine is not an opioid,” said lead author Boris Heifets, MD, a clinical assistant professor of anesthesiology, perioperative and pain medicine. “I was really surprised at the results.”


“And the results were so clear that we ended the study early to avoid exposing additional patients to the ineffective combination treatment,” said co-lead author Nolan Williams, MD, a clinical assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral science.

The Stanford research, published in The American Journal of Psychiatry, caught psychiatrists and pain management experts by surprise. Some urged caution about the long-term use of ketamine until more can be learned about potential side effects such as addiction. Some depressed patients taken off ketamine have shown signs of withdrawal and became suicidal.

“Given the rapid relapse and potential suicide risk, it is hard to know what to recommend to clinicians. Should they really continue to use the agent beyond an acute course? For how long? In whom?” Alan Schatzberg, MD, a Stanford professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, warned in a commentary. “The drug’s opioid properties need to be considered when considering how best to use it.”

‘A Black Eye to Ketamine’

Talk like that has given ketamine a bad rap, according to experts at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. They’ve published a commentary of their own, defending the use of ketamine as a necessary treatment for depression that doesn’t respond to typical antidepressants.

“A (Stanford) study done late last year delivered a black eye to ketamine, and as a result of the coverage, there was a wholesale acceptance by both potential patients and physicians that ketamine is an opioid,” says Adam Kaplin, MD, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins.

“This is most worrisome if people continue to think this way, particularly in the wake of the opioid epidemic; clinicians won’t refer patients for a treatment, despite that it has been shown to be incredibly effective for many patients with treatment-resistant depression.”

Kaplin says there is ample evidence that ketamine sticks to NMDA receptors in the brain that are involved in learning and memory. Because these NMDA receptors are found together with opioid receptors, Kaplin says it’s no surprise that the can meddle with one another, like interference picked up on a phone call or static on the radio.

“This interference and cross-talk does not mean that ketamine is an opioid, and to wrongly label it as such could eventually keep patients from essential antidepressant medications that could make a huge difference in their quality of life,” said Kaplin, who plans on opening a ketamine clinic.

The debate over whether ketamine is an opioid comes at a time when its use is expanding.  Ketamine was approved by the FDA in 1970 solely as a surgical anesthetic to be taken intravenously or by injection. But a growing number of clinics now offer off-label infusions of ketamine to treat depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and difficult chronic pain conditions such as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS).

Demand has grown so much there are reports of ketamine shortages. Although ketamine itself is inexpensive, the infusions can cost several hundred dollars and are not covered by insurance.

Ketamine Nasal Spray

Not until this year did the Food and Drug Administration approve the use of ketamine to treat depression, when it okayed a nasal spray (Spravato) made by Janssen Pharmaceuticals that contains a ketamine compound.

The FDA approved Spravato even though 2 out of 3 short term trials failed to prove its effectiveness. The spray was effective in a longer trial, but only when taken with a conventional antidepressant.

Because of the risk of abuse and side effects, Spravato can only be administered in a doctor’s office, where patients can be observed for two hours after taking a dose. A single dose will cost about $900.

The FDA has called the herbal supplement kratom an opioid because it acts on opioid receptors, but the agency has not taken that step with ketamine. Given current attitudes about opioids, it’s fair to say the FDA would have never approved Spravato if it was considered an opiate.


In addition to its medical uses, ketamine is used as a recreational party drug – known as “Special K” -- because it can cause hallucinations and intense dream-like states.

Whether taken to get high or to treat pain and depression, it’s clear that ketamine is a potent drug that has both harms and benefits. And experts say it needs to be viewed with caution until we know with more certainty how it works.

“Unfortunately, when one approaches ketamine as another antidepressant rather than a drug of abuse, this type of trap is easy to fall into, and in the end, such mistakes can be catastrophic,” Schatzberg said in his commentary. “We have witnessed four decades of supposedly new and safer opioids that have turned out often to be, if anything, even more abusable and lethal."

Social Support Key to Recovery from Suicidal Thoughts

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Hardly a day goes by that I don’t get an email or a comment left on this website about suicide.

Recently a young military veteran named “Joe” reached out. Joe is depressed and unable to work because he has chronic back and leg pain

“The thing is, I’m just about to turn 28 and can’t fathom how I’m supposed to go on like this for another year or two let alone trying to live my life for the next 60-70 years,” Joe wrote. “I’m not going to do anything yet but I have been seriously looking into euthanasia. I haven’t been able to have a real conversation with anybody about it, not even one of my 5 therapists or my wife, because I already know their reactions.”

Joe said he felt very rational about his decision but was anxious to talk about it “without being thrown into a straightjacket.”

Joe’s instinctive urge to talk with someone could be the key to working through this difficult time in his life, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Toronto. They analyzed a survey of 635 Canadians with chronic pain who had seriously thought about suicide to find out what qualities made those thoughts go away. Suicide “ideation” disappeared in about two-thirds of them.

Having a social support network – someone to talk to – was the key.

“The biggest factor in recovery from suicidal thoughts was having a confidant, defined as having at least one close relationship that provide the person in chronic pain a sense of emotional security and well-being,” said lead author Esme Fuller-Thomson, PhD, a Professor of Social Work, Medicine and Nursing and Director of the Institute for Life Course & Aging.

“Even when a wide range of other characteristics such as age, gender and mental health history were taken into account, those with a confidant had 87 percent higher odds of being in remission from suicidal thoughts compared to those with no close relationships."


People with pain who stopped having suicidal thoughts were also significantly more likely to be older, female, white, better educated, and more likely to use prayer and spirituality to cope with daily problems.

Living in poverty and struggling to pay basic living expenses were barriers to recovery from suicide ideation. Poverty can severely limit access to healthcare, transportation and social activity.

"Clearly we need targeted efforts to decrease social isolation and loneliness among those experiencing chronic pain. These participants reported that pain prevented some or most of their activities, so they were particularly vulnerable to social isolation,” said Fuller-Thomson. “More awareness by the general public that mobility limitations associated with chronic pain can make it difficult for individuals to socialize outside the household, could encourage friends and family to visit and phone more and thereby decrease loneliness."

PNN’s recent survey of over 6,000 patients and healthcare providers shows how pervasive suicide is in the pain community. Nearly half the patients said they have considered suicide, while nearly one in four practitioners said they have lost a patient to suicide.

The good news is that public health agencies are finally starting to pay attention to these issues. Last week the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned doctors not to abruptly discontinue or rapidly taper patients on opioid pain medication because of the risk of suicide.

“(FDA) has received reports of serious harm in patients who are physically dependent on opioid pain medicines suddenly having these medicines discontinued or the dose rapidly decreased. These include serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, psychological distress, and suicide,” the agency said.

If you or a loved one are having suicidal thoughts, support is just a phone call away. The Suicide Prevention Lifeline has trained counselors on duty 24/7 at 1-800-273-TALK.

Do You Know How To Say No?

By Ann Marie Gaudon, PNN Columnist

Such a tiny word. Such a powerful one. For toddlers and teenagers, saying “No” comes easily. Then something changes. Some of us as adults would rather stick pins in our eyes than say no to anyone. That’s a problem. An even bigger problem if you suffer from chronic pain

You likely know the drill. Your body is screaming in flared pain -- red flags for rest and self-care. But you don’t say no to your neighbour who needs help with a chore. You don’t say no to babysitting your nieces at the last minute. You don’t say no to that extra job your boss asks you to stay late for. 


The inability to say no is directly linked to our need for approval from others. Why do we crave their positive opinion? There are many reasons, but for our purposes let’s just talk about chronic pain patients and some of the reasons we can’t say no.

The consequences of unrelieved pain can include but are not limited to:  depression, anxiety, impaired function, financial distress, sleep and appetite disturbances, identity erosion, social isolation, relationship conflict, demoralization, and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. They can all disconnect you from your family, friends, work and social life.

In a herculean attempt not to relinquish “who we were” before the pain, we don’t say no. Our hearts scream out: “I’m still a son/daughter! I’m still a partner! I’m still a parent! I’m still a good friend! I’m still a valued employee!”  We instinctively try to stay in the group in order to survive. We must be accepted and approved at all costs!

What are the personal costs of not saying no?


We only have so much time and energy, and yours is steadily eroded by other people’s demands. You may begin to experience anxiety attacks. Constant worrying and catastrophizing can lead to heart palpitations, sweating, headaches and other physical manifestations.


Constantly giving in to the demands of others and consistently falling behind in your own life can lead to feelings of low self-esteem, a major contributor to depression. If you spend your time catering to others without focusing on your owns needs, you can lose track of what you want and who you really are. This loss of identity feeds into anxiety and depression.

Relationship Breakdown

In the beginning, saying yes all the time may be appealing to you and to others. But as time goes by hidden resentments may surface or you may feel manipulated.

If you cannot say no, you’re not being honest about your feelings for fear of hurting someone else’s. You may not even be honest about how much pain you are in.

Honesty is a cornerstone of healthy relationships. Saying yes when you truly want to say no isn’t being honest – to yourself or anyone else.



Too much stress isn’t healthy and can be devastating to pained bodies. It’s exhausting trying to please everyone all of the time. Exhausted bodies are stressed bodies. You’re more likely to experience low grade colds or illness, have trouble sleeping, and feel more pain.

The inability to say no is problematic to your mental and physical well-being. It serves no one – not you or others – to be consistently saying yes when your body says no. You are not being true to yourself or to them.

Others cannot see your pain or understand what your needs are, so they are not given a chance to respect them. It’s really a lose-lose situation.

How does a pain sufferer get themselves out of this unrelenting pattern? Here are four tips I’ve learned:

1. Make Your Pain Visible

If you were in a wheelchair, your disability and limitations would be obvious. But when your pain is invisible, others may need to be educated. It’s time to fess up about what you are capable of and what you are not. Your health demands it.

You’ve likely heard this before: If you don’t take care of yourself first, you will never be able to take care of others. Think of the flight attendant teaching us how to use our oxygen masks in case of emergency. You always put your own mask on first to get the oxygen you’ll need to help others. It’s just like that with pain. When your body says no, it becomes you first.


Some people feel shame in telling others that they suffer from chronic pain. They feel broken or weak and don’t want others to know. This is an erroneous self-belief. It creates an invisible boundary between yourself and the rest of the world.

You = bad, broken. Everyone else = good, whole.

This is emphatically untrue. You are not different from the rest of the world. Everyone suffers in some way, shape or form. It may not be from physical pain, but it will be from something else.

It may not be the easiest conversation you ever have, but it’s one of the most important ones.  Some folks provide educational material about their pain condition to help explain how debilitating it can be. You might be pleasantly surprised when you give people a chance to understand. They may embrace you with compassion, respect your limitations and treat you accordingly – just as you would for a loved one.

If you don’t say no and make your pain visible, they’ll never see the authentic you. They only see a façade: You wearing a “yes” mask. Is that fair to either of you? 

2. Create Boundaries  

When you’re learning how to say no, it’s easy to get caught off guard so be prepared. Sometimes well-meaning loved ones will try to coax or guilt you into doing something you really don’t want to do. Have a narrative ready. It could be something like, “I know I look fine, but my joints are hurting so much it’s getting hard to move. I’m just exhausted and I need your support right now.”

Or perhaps something like: “Sorry, I cannot help with that because I’m in a pain flare today and need to take care of myself. I’d really like to help when I am able to, so next time around, ask me again.”

Boundaries for support from other people need to be firm. If not, you risk no one taking you or your pain seriously.

3. Simplify Your Social Life, But Don’t Abandon It  

What about social occasions? How do you handle an impromptu invitation from a friend when your body is telling you to stay put? Living as well as possible with chronic pain is all about constant adaptations.

Perhaps there is something you could attend if someone else did all of the driving?

Maybe you can go to a potluck dinner, but your contribution is store-bought?

Loved ones want to get together for a meal? Dining out is a terrific choice because there’s no cooking or clean up involved.

Can’t keep up with your friends at the gym? Let them run on their treadmills or go to cardio class while you walk around the track. You can all meet up later for a stretch and a green tea.


Family wants to go bowling, which is something you’re not physically capable of? No need to miss out. Let them bowl as you sit and chat with them as they take their turns. You might be pleasantly surprised your inner circle is just happy to have you there and that they’ve come to understand your limits

4. Yes, But…

How do you RSVP to an invitation when you have no idea how you will feel at that time?

How about this: “Thanks, I would love to come but there is a chance that it may be a flared pain day for me. Can I confirm with you the day of, if that’s okay?” This is a regular of mine.

It may turn out to be a low pain day, in which case I’m attending.  If it’s a medium pain day, I’ll put my psychotherapy tools to work and go. If it’s a very high pain day, I am staying home.  

Framing it this way makes it much easier for me to bow out at the last minute. I do this both socially and with work-related meetings. If I’m not able to make it, we re-book so they know I really do want to attend, I just need to be well enough to do it.

There are some very special and rare occasions where I will say yes even if my body says no, such as a wedding or special birthday event. In that case, I will not book myself for anything or anyone for a couple of days after so that I can fully recover.

Say no when necessary. Simplify and adapt to your needs when necessary. You first. It’s not selfish, it’s self-compassion. Chronic pain patients could all use more of that. Seek help if you need some.  Most therapists are well-versed in self-compassion.


Ann Marie Gaudon is a registered social worker and psychotherapist in the Waterloo region of Ontario, Canada with a specialty in chronic pain management.  She has been a chronic pain patient for over 30 years and works part-time as her health allows. For more information about Ann Marie's counseling services, visit her website.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

10 Ways to Avoid Depression Over the Holidays

By Barby Ingle, PNN Columnist

Do you celebrate the holidays or do you secretly dread them? For some of us, the period between Thanksgiving and St. Patrick’s Day can be the most depressing time of the year.

The first reason is that we are exposed to less sunlight during the winter. We need light to maintain our physical, mental and emotional health. There are also societal pressures that can weigh heavily on pain patients, such as not being able to participate in holiday activities. The holidays can make us depressed, financially strained, anxiety ridden, and harder to be around.

Here are some early warning signs of depression:

  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering details and making decisions

  • Fatigue and decreased energy

  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness and/or helplessness

  • Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping

  • Irritability, restlessness

  • Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex

  • Overeating or appetite loss

  • Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems

  • Persistent sad, anxious or "empty" feelings

  • Thoughts of suicide or a suicide attempt

Take this seriously, as depression carries a high risk of suicide. Anybody who expresses suicidal thoughts or intentions should be taken very seriously. Do not hesitate to call your local suicide hotline immediately.

Depression can cause you to isolate yourself from others, decreasing your mobility and increasing drug dependence. A cycle begins where depression causes and intensifies the pain and stress on your body.

It can be hard to face the emotional aspects of pain, but it is important to look at the signs and be aware of them. Remember, pain causes depression, not the other way around! 


Depression can keep you from taking care of yourself. You cannot afford to let yourself fall into dark dreary moods. Be sure, no matter how you are feeling, that you are following the goals set for your care, such as taking the correct dose of medication at the correct time of each day.

It may take a little effort to keep healthy habits when you are depressed. Here are 10 tips fellow pain patients, friends with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and I have used over the years.  

  1. Use artificial light sources. The body’s internal biological clock can get really out of sync during the winter season. Bright light therapy becomes an important tool.

  2. Try something new, such as a craft or hobby.

  3. Progressive muscle relaxation, hypnosis and meditation can reduce stress and pain levels

  4. Stop doing things you don’t enjoy and do things you like, such as listening to music or aroma therapy.

  5. Physical therapy and exercise can break the cycle of pain and help relieve depression

  6. Make a list of life’s blessings, reminding yourself what you have accomplished in life. Even if you can’t do it now, you could once and no one can take that from you.

  7. Cognitive and behavioral therapies teach pain patients how to avoid negative and discouraging thoughts.

  8. Change everyday routines to ward off physical and emotional suffering

  9. Clean out or organize an area of the house. It could be as simple as clearing a bedside table or filing your medical records. Getting organized in one area of your life can help you manage other areas more successfully.

  10. Seek professional help if you start feeling overwhelmed. Dealing with chronic pain can slow recovery from depression. Specialists should treat both problems together.  

Getting your depression under control will help you focus on managing your health. As you learn to let go of anxiety and stress, it will help lower pain levels and make the holidays more enjoyable.  

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Barby Ingle lives with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), migralepsy and endometriosis. Barby is a chronic pain educator, patient advocate, and president of the International Pain Foundation. She is also a motivational speaker and best-selling author on pain topics. More information about Barby can be found at her website.  

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Social Media Lowers Depression Risk for Pain Patients

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Seniors citizens who have chronic pain are significantly less likely to suffer from depression if they participate in an online social network, according to a new study.

Researchers at the University of Michigan reviewed the results of a 2011 survey of more than 3,400 Medicare patients aged 65 and older, in which respondents were asked about their depression, pain and social participation. About 17% of the seniors used an online social network in the previous month.


Researchers found that seniors who had chronic pain were often depressed, socially isolated and less likely to participate in activities that require face-to-face interaction.

However, online social participation appeared to buffer the impact of pain on depression. Seniors in pain who did not use an online social network were twice as likely to become depressed.

“The results suggest that for those in pain, it may be possible that online social participation can compensate for reduced offline social participation, especially where it pertains to the maintenance of mental health and well-being. This is critical because the onset of pain can often lead to a ‘downward spiral’ of social isolation and depression, resulting in adverse outcomes for the health of older adults,” wrote lead author Shannon Ang, a doctoral candidate at the U-M Department of Sociology and Institute for Social Research.

“Online social participation serves as a way to possibly arrest the development of pain toward depression through this pathway, by ensuring that older adults remain socially connected despite the presence of pain.”

Social media may also preserve cognitive function and psychological well-being in the elderly, researchers said. The findings are significant in an aging society where social isolation and loneliness are key determinants of well-being.

"Our results may be possibly extended to other forms of conditions (e.g., chronic illnesses, functional limitations) that, like pain, also restrict physical activity outside of the home," Ang said.

The survey data did not identify what types of social media – such as Facebook or Twitter – were more effective in warding off depression and social isolation.

The study was published in the Journals of Gerontology.

Fibromyalgia and the High Risk of Suicide

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Studies have shown that fibromyalgia patients are 10 times more likely to die by suicide than the general population, and about three times more likely than other chronic pain patients.

What can be done to reduce that alarmingly high risk?

One possible solution is for fibromyalgia patients to visit a doctor more often, according to a new study published in the journal Arthritis Care & Research.

Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center analyzed health data for nearly 8,900 fibromyalgia patients, finding 34 known suicide attempts and 96 documented cases of suicidal thoughts – also known as suicide ideation. Then they looked at how often the patients saw a doctor.

On average, patients who had suicidal thoughts spent 1.7 hours seeing a doctor per year, while those who did not have suicide ideation visited a doctor an average of 5.9 hours per year.


The difference was even more substantial for those who tried to commit suicide. Fibromyalgia patients who attempted suicide saw a doctor for less than an hour a year, compared to over 50 hours per year for those who did not try to kill themselves.

“Fifty hours versus one hour – that’s a staggering difference,” said lead author Lindsey McKernan, PhD, a professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. “They might have been at one appointment in a year and this disorder, fibromyalgia, takes a lot to manage. It takes a lot of engagement.”

Fibromyalgia is characterized by deep tissue pain, fatigue, depression, insomnia and mood swings. Because fibromyalgia is difficult to diagnose and treat, there is a fair amount of stigma associated with it and patients often feel like they are not believed or taken seriously by their family, friends and doctors.

Self-isolation could be one reason fibromyalgia patients don’t visit a physician as often as they should.

“If you really break it down the people who were having suicidal thoughts weren’t going into the doctor as much. I think about the people who might be falling through the cracks. Chronic pain in and of itself is very isolating over time,” said McKernan.

“Perhaps we can connect those individuals to an outpatient provider, or providers, to improve their care and reduce their suicide risk. We also might see patients at-risk establish meaningful relationships with providers whom they can contact in times of crisis,” said senior author Colin Walsh, MD, a professor of Biomedical Informatics at Vanderbilt.

In addition to seeing a primary care provider or rheumatologist, researchers say fibromyalgia patients should be getting regular exercise and physical therapy, and working with a psychologist or mental health provider.

“We looked at thousands of people in this study and not one who received mental health services of some kind went on to attempt suicide,” McKernan said.

“Often, when you are hurting, your body tells you to stay in bed. Moving is the last thing that you want to do. And when you are tired, when your mood is low, when your body aches, you don’t want to see anybody, but that is exactly what you need to do — contact your doctors, stay in touch with them, and move. It really can make a difference.”