Genetic Variation Raises Risk of Post-Traumatic Pain

By Pat Anson, Editor

If you have chronic pain because of an accident, injury or assault, it could be because you have a genetic variation that makes you more likely to develop post-traumatic pain.

That’s the key finding behind a new study published in the Journal of Neuroscience. Researchers at the University of North Carolina studied over 1,500 people who were admitted to emergency rooms for trauma after a motor vehicle collision.

In addition to genotyping the patients, the researchers assessed their distress immediately after the accident, as well as their pain and post-traumatic stress symptoms six weeks later. Participants with a particular variant in the gene FKBP5 reported more severe pain and distress at follow up.

FKBP5 is a critical regulator of the stress response and affects how we respond to environmental stimuli. Previous studies have shown that certain variants of the gene play a role in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide risk and aggressive behavior.

UNC School of Medicine researchers were the first to show an association between FKBP5 and post-traumatic chronic pain. A 2013 study found that people with a particular variation of the gene are likely to experience more pain after exposure to trauma compared to people who don't have the variant.

The new study by the same research group builds on that discovery by showing that the variation inhibits the regulation of cortisol, a stress hormone that sensitizes peripheral nerves. People with high levels of cortisol are likely to experience more pain.


"In our current study, we showed that the reason this variant affects chronic pain outcomes is because it alters the ability of FKBP5 to be regulated by a microRNA called miR-320a," said lead author Sarah Linnstaedt, PhD, a professor of anesthesiology and an investigator in the UNC Institute for Trauma Recovery.

"In other words, it does not negatively regulate FKBP5, thus causing FKBP5 to be over-expressed. High levels of FKBP5 can be detrimental because it alters natural feedback mechanisms that control circulating cortisol levels."

Linnstaedt says the findings suggest there could be new therapeutic approaches to treating traumatic pain, such as medication that inhibits the activity of FKBP5 or gene editing that alters the variation.

Funding for the UNC study was provided by the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases, The Mayday Fund, a Future Leaders in Pain Grant from The American Pain Society, and the National Human Genome Research Institute.

The Link Between Trauma and Chronic Pain

Ann Marie Gaudon, Columnist

It has long been accepted in my field that chronic pain is a frequent outcome of trauma. There is extensive evidence to suggest that people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report chronic pain with striking frequency regardless of the nature of the traumatic experience. You don’t need to have been diagnosed with PTSD to be negatively and chronically affected by trauma.

One strong and commonly referred to theoretical model explaining the connection between trauma and chronic pain is known as the Mutual Maintenance Model. A person may respond to reminders of trauma through stress response, which may include avoidant coping (trying to avoid your distress by zoning out with video games or drinking to numb yourself), fatigue and lethargy associated with depression, pain perception elevated by anxiety, and intrusive memories of the trauma itself.

These considerable mental demands limit one’s capacity to control or decrease their physical pain and have the opposite effect of exacerbating and maintaining pain. To put it simply, experiencing pain prompts memories of the trauma, and memories of the trauma prompt experiences of pain.

The end result is that a person is trapped in a vicious cycle whereby the symptoms of trauma and chronic pain interact to produce self-perpetuating psychological distress and physical pain.


A second model, called the Shared Vulnerability Model, suggests that the interaction of trauma, psychological vulnerability (anxiety, loss of control over thoughts and feelings), and a lowered physiological threshold for alarm reactions all influence negative emotional responses, resulting in the development of PTSD and the co-occurrence of chronic pain.

This chronic arousal of the nervous system may be responsible for the symptoms of both PTSD and chronic pain. There is research which suggests that chronic pain and PTSD are not necessarily distinct from each other, but rather connected and overlapping. The fact that sympathetic activity (the gas pedal to your distress) is increased, and parasympathetic activity (the brake pedal to your distress) is decreased, both in general and in response to trauma-related stimuli, is one of the most robust findings within the PTSD literature.

Disastrous events can strike any of us, at any time in life, and no one is immune. Some events are relational such as a school shooting or a rape, while others are natural disasters like earthquakes or floods. After any distressing or life-threatening event, psychological trauma may set in. One may go on to develop extreme anxiety, depression, anger, or PTSD and may have ongoing problems with sleep, physical pain and even relationships.

Healthy ways of coping include getting support, avoiding alcohol and drugs, seeing loved ones, exercising, enhancing sleep habits, and other methods of self-care. Certainly not everyone with chronic pain has experienced trauma and vice versa. However, there is extensive research to show that PTSD and chronic pain are intimately connected.

Seek an experienced trauma therapist if you feel you are not coping well. Trauma therapy is highly specialized, takes place in healing stages at your pace, and works to re-wire what’s become maladaptive in your brain by laying down new and healthier neural pathways. Click here to see a YouTube video that explains that process.

The work will be hard and challenging, but the good news is that many people heal from trauma and go on to live rich and rewarding lives. Some offer inspiration to others who have also endured life-altering negative experiences.

People become sick and pained, and people also heal. Suffering can skyrocket, and suffering can also take a nosedive. You do the work as if your life depended on it, because experience tells us it often does.


Ann Marie Gaudon is a registered social worker and psychotherapist in the Waterloo region of Ontario, Canada with a specialty in chronic pain management.  She has been a chronic pain patient for 33 years and works part-time as her health allows. For more information about Ann Marie's counseling services, visit her website.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Pain Companion: How to Survive the Holidays

By Sarah Anne Shockley, Columnist

The holiday season is upon us. For many it’s a time meant for joyful festivities, but for those of us in chronic pain, planning and participating in gatherings with coworkers, friends and family can pose significant challenges and stresses.
The demands on our energy, time and patience are likely going to become much higher than normal, and we’ll need to make wise choices about what we can and can’t do.

How do we find ways to participate enjoyably and not send our pain levels skyrocketing?

You Don't Have To Do It All

Learn to say no. Nicely, kindly, but firmly.

You don't have to be the person you were before you were struggling with pain, and you shouldn't try to be.

Yes, people have expectations of you and they forget that you're in pain. It's no fun, but you're going to have to gently remind others that you can't be everywhere and do everything they expect of you this holiday season.

Tell them that it's also hard on you, not be able to be as involved as you have been in the past, but that it is very necessary for your healing.

Let them know that the best way they can support your healing is to allow you to make the choices you need to make -- the choices that may keep you home a little more and out a little (or a lot) less often.

Give yourself permission to ask others to do more than usual so you can attend gatherings without wearing yourself out, and give yourself permission to stay home if you need to.

Let coworkers, friends, and family know that it's nothing personal about them. It's personal about you. You're taking care of yourself.

Give Yourself a Free Pass

Give yourself a free pass to say yes or no at the last minute, and decide you’re going to be okay with that. That means that you're going to reply with a firm "maybe" when you're invited anywhere. It means that you can leave the decision about whether you're up for something or not right up to the moment you're heading out the door. And it means preparing others to accept that.

Tell friends and family that you may need to cancel your attendance at the last minute, or that you may need to leave early, and ask for their understanding ahead of time. Let them know that you really want to be able to be with them, and your absence has nothing to do with how much you care about them. It has everything to do with taking care of yourself.

Then do what you need to do in that regard, and do it without guilt. Your priority is to find a way to take care of your need for rest and low stress, even in the midst of this demanding season.

Don't Cut Yourself Off

With that said, don't completely cut yourself off from friends and family either. Being with loved ones for special occasions can be one of the most joyful aspects of being alive, so you don't want to miss out entirely if you can help it.

So, here's my formula: Choose a small number, say 3 to 5 celebrations for the wholeholiday season that you feel are the most important to you personally. I don't mean the ones you used to think were important based on obligations to work, family and friends. I mean the ones you truly enjoy, the ones that feed your spirit, the ones you would really miss if you couldn't go.

If at all possible, find a way to get to those and only those. Go for only a brief period, if need be. Attend without contributing to food or preparations. Again, give yourself a guilt-free pass.

Let yourself have the times that are important to YOU, and say no to the rest.

This may sound selfish, but if you're in pain, you need to be a little more selfish. It isn't doing anyone any good for you to wear yourself out trying to do everything you used to do and go everywhere you used to go, if you will be raising your pain levels and not enjoying yourself.

So, instead of being exhausted and grumpy at too many functions, pick a few choice ones you can attend with enjoyment. Above all, be kind to yourself and take care of yourself first.

Find an Ally

Recruit a holiday ally -- a friend or family member who understands your situation -- who will do the explaining for you, drive you over to functions, pick up the slack in terms of bringing food or making arrangements, and agree to leave early with you if it's necessary.

You might find someone for the whole season or you might want to ask a different person for each function. Remind yourself: You need more help. You need to do less.

Don’t hide away this holiday season if you can help it, but also give yourself the gift of attending fewer functions, say yes only to the ones you really enjoy, find an ally or two who will support you, and giving yourself a free pass to say no so that you can fully enjoy the celebrations you do attend.

Sarah Anne Shockley suffers from Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, a painful condition that affects the nerves and arteries in the upper chest. Sarah is the author of The Pain Companion: Everyday Wisdom for Living With and Moving Beyond Chronic Pain.

Sarah also writes for her blog, The Pain Companion.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represent the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Study Finds Link Between Chronic Pain and Anxiety

By Pat Anson, Editor

A new study helps explain why so many chronic pain patients also suffer from anxiety or depression.

Researchers at the University of Vermont discovered that the body releases the same neurotransmitter in response to stress as it does to chronic neuropathic pain. The findings, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry, could lead to the development of a new and safer class of medication that could treat both pain and anxiety.

In studies on laboratory mice, researchers found that pain signals and the PACAP neurotransmitter (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) share the same pathway to the brain - the spino-parabrachiomygdaloid tract - which travels from the spinal cord to the amygdala, where the brain processes emotional behavior.

"Chronic pain and anxiety-related disorders frequently go hand-in-hand," says senior author Victor May, PhD, a professor of neurological sciences at the University of Vermont. "By targeting this regulator and pathway, we have opportunities to block both chronic pain and anxiety disorders."

May and his colleagues found that anxious behavior and pain hypersensitivity were significantly reduced when a PACAP receptor antagonist -- designed to block the release of the neurotransmitter -- was applied.

"This would be a completely different approach to using benzodiazepine and opioids - it's another tool in the arsenal to battle chronic pain and stress-related behavioral disorders," said May, who found in a previous study that PACAP was highly expressed in women exhibiting symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

May’s findings are important because anxiety and stress are currently treated with sedatives, benzodiazepines and other central nervous system (CNS) depressants. When taken with opioid pain medication, the combination of the drugs can lead to extreme sleepiness, respiratory depression, coma and death.

Yesterday, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ordered new “black box” warning labels be put on all medications that contain opioids, benzodiazepines and CNS depressants, warning patients and physicians about the increased risk.

According to a 2015 study, over a third of the patients prescribed opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain were given a sedative. And patients with a history of psychiatric and substance abuse disorders were even more likely to be co-prescribed opioids and sedatives.

Power of Pain: How to Make Holidays Less Stressful

By Barby Ingle, Columnist                                               

Maintaining holiday traditions can be hectic and stressful -- even for healthy people. This should be an enjoyable time of year for everyone, but for people with chronic pain and physical limitations, they bring an extra element of challenges and stress. 

How do you cope with the holidays? Do you approach them in a hectic manner or do you break down the tasks into manageable ones? How do you get through the holiday season and enjoy it?

Here are a few tips I’ve learned about planning ahead, gift giving, and setting the expectation.

Start by prioritizing activities and only worry about things that are important to you and your family. Organize your schedule to include a time for each item to be completed by time frame and importance. Begin early with more complicated tasks and expect a “bad” day or two so they don’t cause stressful situations at the last minute.

It is important to avoid the last minute rush of gift buying and other holiday activities. Either cut out the nonessential steps, get help setting them up, or start early giving yourself plenty of time.

It is also good to work on your preventative health: nutrition, posture, and positive mental attitude.

When it comes to attending parties, I would suggest you attend others instead of hosting them yourself. That way you can make an appearance and leave before all of your energy is spent. You can let the host know that you can only stay for a limited time due to other commitments, and if you decide to stay longer, all the better. Once you explain your limitations to the event host, you’ll find your stress level will be reduced. Setting the expectation early is very important in group settings.

When it comes to gift giving, my best tip is to buy gifts online -- no walking or waiting! The items will arrive at your house or theirs, and you’ll save your energy for other tasks. Take advantage of free shipping when possible and online coupon codes to save money.

When it comes to making your gifts presentable, use gift bags. They’re easier than traditional wrapping, and save time and energy. Although decorations are beautiful, downsizing can still be festive and keep everyone in the holiday mood.

Communication is key to a successful season. It helps to talk to guests or party hosts ahead of time and explain your limitations as a chronic pain patient. When you are hosting an event, delegate duties as much as possible. The same goes when it comes to decorating. It is okay to ask for help and accept your limitations without guilt or blame. It is not your fault that you live with chronic pain. Help others understand your limits by sharing with them ahead of time what they are and telling them what they can do to help make it easier for you and other guests.

For the guests that “will never understand,” realize that you are not there for them. You are there for yourself first and others at the holiday event who love and support you. You can have a great time no matter who else is there or if they understand your pain or not.

It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks about your health and protecting your body and mind. It is okay to take care of yourself first, especially during the holidays.

Let go of the stress, guilt and excess. Trim down the excess and turn the hustle and bustle of the holidays into a fun enjoyable time to be thankful for, with great memories to hold onto for years to come.

Barby Ingle suffers from Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) and endometriosis. Barby is a chronic pain educator, patient advocate, and president of the Power of Pain Foundation. She is also a motivational speaker and best-selling author on pain topics.

More information about Barby can be found at her website.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.