Study: THC More Effective Than CBD in Treating Pain

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana -- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – is more effective than cannabidiol (CBD) in treating chronic pain and other medical conditions, according to a new study that challenges the widespread belief that THC is harmful and has limited value in medical cannabis products.

Researchers at the University of New Mexico used the Releaf App, a mobile software program, to analyze self-reported data from over 3,300 people who logged their responses in nearly 20,000 user sessions to a variety of cannabis products, including natural dried flower, edibles, tinctures and ointments.

marijuana man.jpg

Dried flower was the most commonly used product and was generally associated with greater pain relief than other cannabis products, regardless of the amount of THC.

"Despite the conventional wisdom, both in the popular press and much of the scientific community that only CBD has medical benefits while THC merely makes one high, our results suggest that THC may be more important than CBD in generating therapeutic benefits,” said Jacob Miguel Vigil, PhD, a professor in UNM’s Department of Psychology.

“In our study, CBD appears to have little effect at all, while THC generates measurable improvements in symptom relief. These findings justify the immediate de-scheduling of all types of cannabis, in addition to hemp, so that cannabis with THC can be more widely accessible for pharmaceutical use by the general public.”

Hemp is a strain of marijuana that was legalized by Congress in the 2018 Farm Bill. It has very low levels of THC, but is being grown commercially as a source for CBD.

UNM researchers found that indica strains of cannabis were more effective than sativa strains in treating pain and insomnia. Both strains have substantially higher levels of THC than hemp, but are illegal Schedule I controlled substances under federal law.

“Only THC potency levels showed independent associations with symptom relief and experiences of both positive and negative side effects, with higher levels (of THC) resulting in larger effects,” Vigil said.

Researchers say the relative weakness of CBD in treating symptoms may be due to inaccurate labeling of CBD content in cannabis products, which is a widespread industry problem. It’s also possible that THC simply heightens the experience or awareness of symptom relief.

Vigil published his findings in the journal Scientific Reports. Three of his co-authors developed the Releaf App, which has collected information from cannabis users since 2016. The app is an important data source for researchers, who are currently limited in conducting clinical studies of cannabis because of federal regulations.

Two previous studies by Vigil using data from the Releaf App found that cannabis provides significant relief from a wide range of symptoms associated with chronic pain, including insomnia, seizures, depression, anxiety and fatigue.

DEA Gives Final Approval to Synthetic Marijuana Drug

By Pat Anson, Editor

The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration has approved a synthetic form of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) – the active ingredient in marijuana that makes people “high” – as a Schedule II controlled substance. The move is the final regulatory hurdle for dronabinol (Syndros), an oral solution already being prescribed for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients, and as an appetite stimulant for AIDS patients.

Schedule II substances include oxycodone, hydrocodone and other drugs that have an accepted medical use, but a high abuse potential.  

The DEA announced the scheduling of dronabinol in a notice quietly published in the Federal Register the day before Thanksgiving. The agency adopted an interim rule classifying dronabinol as a Schedule II substance in March, and the Food and Drug Administration approved a new drug application for dronabinol in July, recommending that DEA make its rule final.

This week’s action was not unexpected, but is weirdly ironic on several levels.

The classification of dronabinal as a Schedule II substance means that a synthetic version of marijuana can be legally prescribed throughout the country, while real marijuana is still classified as a dangerous Schedule I substance and remains illegal under federal law – except in the 29 states and the District of Columbia where medical cannabis is legal.

Dronabinol is sold under the brand named Syndros by Insys Therapeutics, a controversial Arizona drug maker beset by allegations that another one of its products – a potent fentanyl spray called Subsys – is responsible for hundreds of overdose deaths.

The DEA has been aggressively going after doctors who prescribed Subsys and accepted speaking fees from Insys, and several company officials have been indicted on fraud, racketeering and kickback charges.

Snydros is similar to Marinol, another medication derived from marijuana that comes in pill form.

insys therapeutics photo

insys therapeutics photo

The DEA's action is also notable because it gives Insys the exclusive right to manufacture and sell its liquid formulation of dronabinol without having to worry about competition. Any other synthetic version not sold as Syndros will still be considered a Schedule I substance, on par with LSD, heroin and marijuana.

 “It should be noted as a preliminary matter that any form of dronabinol other than in an FDA-approved drug product remains a schedule I controlled substance, and those who handle such material remain subject to the regulatory controls, and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions, applicable to schedule I controlled substances set forth in the CSA (Controlled Substance Act) and DEA regulations,” the DEA said.

According to Healthcare Bluebook, a one-month supply of Syndros will cost about $2,000 at major pharmacy chains. A "fair price" for Syndros is listed as $1,000.

Insys Thereapeutics drew the ire of marijuana advocates last year when it donated $500,000 to a campaign against the legalization of marijuana in Arizona.

The company is worried about the medical use of “natural cannabis,” but has petitioned the DEA to reschedule another synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) that is derived from marijuana from Schedule I to Schedule IV.

Most Cannabidiol Oils Sold Online Mislabeled

By Pat Anson, Editor

With opioid medication increasingly harder to obtain and other types of pain relievers often ineffective, many chronic pain sufferers have turned to cannabidiol-based medication for relief.

But a new study published in JAMA has found that nearly 70 percent of all cannabidiol (CBD) products sold online are either over or under-labeled. Researchers say a number of CBD products that are used to treat pain, anxiety, epilepsy and other medical conditions also contain high-levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the substance in marijuana that makes people high.

“The biggest implication is that many of these patients may not be getting the proper dosage; they’re either not getting enough for it to be effective or they’re getting too much,” said lead author Marcel Bonn-Miller, PhD, an adjunct professor of psychology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

“This is a medication that is often used for children with epilepsy, so parents could be giving their child THC without even knowing it.”

Like THC, CBD is one of the active ingredients in marijuana, but it is not generally known to produce euphoria or make people high. CBD is currently classified as a Schedule I controlled substance by the federal government, even though it has been legalized for medicinal use in 29 states and the District of Columbia.



Bonn-Miller says the mislabeling and poor quality control of CBD products is a direct result of inadequate regulation.

“The big problem, with this being something that is not federally legal, is that the needed quality assurance oversight from the Food and Drug Administration is not available. There are currently no standards for producing, testing, or labeling these oils,” Bonn-Miller said. “There is no way to know what is actually in the bottle. It’s crazy to have less oversight and information about a product being widely used for medicinal purposes, especially in very ill children, than a Hershey bar.”

Bonn-Miller and his colleagues searched the Internet and purchased 84 CBD products from 31 different companies. They found that four out of ten products were under-labeled, meaning they contained a higher concentration of CBD than indicated. Another 26 percent of products purchased were over-labeled, meaning they contained a lower concentration of CBD than indicated.

Only 30 percent of CBD products purchased contained an actual CBD content that was within 10% of the amount listed on the product label. THC was detected in 21% of the samples.

“This is a wake up call for the CBD industry to standardize their products,” said co-author Jahan Marcu, PhD, Chief Science Officer for Americans for Safe Access (ASA).

“CBD product manufacturers need to adopt best practices and accept guidance from AHPA (American Herbal Products Association) and other groups to improve consistency and safety for consumers.”

ASA and AHPA supports the Patient Focused Certification (PFC) program, a non-profit, peer reviewed, third party certification program for the medical cannabis industry. Products that carry the PFC label have met their standards and been certified.


“I am constantly contacted for suggestions for a safe company that sells CBD - and it would be helpful to steer people in the right direction,” said Ellen Lenox Smith, a medical marijuana user, advocate and PNN columnist.

“Although less or more CBD won't hurt you, it makes sense to develop a method for people to know they are getting the correct product that is being claimed. If THC is found in the product, then someone out there is not abiding by the law and is using a form of cannabis, thus breaking the law.”

The problem isn’t limited to CBD oils and extracts. In a previous study, Bonn-Miller and his colleagues analyzed cannabinoid dose and label accuracy in edible marijuana products and found similar discrepancies. He hopes this and future studies will call attention to the impact of inconsistent cannabis product labelling.

“Future research should be focused on making sure people are paying attention to this issue and encouraging regulation in this rapidly expanding industry,” Bonn-Miller said.

Is It Safe to Use Cannabis with THC?

By Ellen Lenox Smith, Columnist

I am constantly reading about people interested in medical marijuana who are seeking information on cannabis products high in CBD for their medical issues.  I’ve also noticed many stating they do not want any THC in these products.

I’ve found that I need both. 

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are chemical compounds, called cannabinoids, found in the marijuana plant. There are well over a hundred different cannabinoids in marijuana, and they all interact with receptors in the brain and body, causing various effects.

THC is the most widely known cannabinoid, due to its abundance and psychoactive qualities. For centuries, marijuana has been used recreationally because of THC’s ability to make people feel “high” or euphoric.

But as cannabis has become more accepted for medical use, some are concerned that they will get high or stoned if their cannabis has any THC in it. Many have turned to cannabis products that primarily contain CBD. 

Personally, I have learned to look for products that contain both THC and CBD, as they are more effective in easing my pain and helping me sleep.



Personally, I have learned to look for products that contain both THC and CBD, as they are more effective in easing my pain and helping me sleep.

Many patients became interested in CBD after learning that epileptic seizures could be reduced or even stopped by utilizing cannabis products high in CBD content.  This was discovered when the parents of Charlotte Figi, a 5-year old girl suffering from severe seizures, learned of a cannabis strain that was loaded with CBD. This was what they wanted to try with their daughter, because it was completely non-psychoactive, unlike THC. The results were amazing, not only reducing Charlotte’s seizures, but also opening up the possibility of helping patients with other conditions such as spasms, anxiety and chronic pain.

Like me, many patients with chronic conditions have found that they need to use medical cannabis extracted from either a high CBD variety or one with more THC. If you find a high-CBD strain, it does not mean it will be THC-free. Many strains advertised as “high-CBD” still contain some psychoactive cannabinoids. This should not scare you.

I am 67 years old and have been using cannabis since 2007 for two incurable painful conditions.   Like many patients, I had no desire to experience the psychoactive effects of THC, so at one point in my treatment I tried a high CBD strain containing only trace amounts of THC. The pain relief just didn’t happen, so I switched back to cannabis products that combined CBD and THC.

Recently, after reading that CBD can help with cancer, lupus, nicotine addiction, Parkinson’s disease, osteoporosis and other chronic conditions, I decided to grow plants high in CBD to add to the oil I take orally at night. I now make an oil with a combination of strains that include this higher CBD strain, along with higher THC plants.

I want you to know that I do not get “high” or stoned, as some assume. What I get is pain relief.

But remember, as with any medication, you can take too much and get a negative reaction, so be careful to take the dose that is right for you. Don’t be concerned if you are like me and need THC to get relief from your pain. Each body requires something different and we all need to find the correct match for safe relief.

Ellen Lenox Smith suffers from Ehlers Danlos syndrome and sarcoidosis. Ellen and her husband Stuart live in Rhode Island. They are co-directors for medical marijuana advocacy for the U.S. Pain Foundation and serve as board members for the Rhode Island Patient Advocacy Coalition.

For more information about medical marijuana, visit their website.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.