Chronic Pain and Opioids Impact Sexual Health

By Pat Anson, Editor

What’s more important to you?  Pain relief or an active sex life?

The question is not as frivolous as it sounds. According to a recent study published in Pain Medicine, chronic pain patients who take opioid medication are significantly more likely to experience a lack of desire and to be less satisfied with their sex lives, especially if they take opioids long-term.

Of course, anyone with a chronic illness is more likely to have sexual health issues – whether its desire, function or attracting another partner.  But the issues seem more pronounced with those who take opioids.  

Danish researchers surveyed over 11,500 randomly chosen adults. Slightly more than half the women and a little less than half the men said they suffered from chronic non-cancer pain.

Pain sufferers who did not use opioids were 38% more likely to be unhappy with their sex lives and 46% more likely to report a lack of desire than people who were pain free. So just being in pain is a big factor by itself.

But long-term opioid users were 69% more likely to report dissatisfaction with their sex lives and were twice as likely to experience low or no sexual desire.


Short-term opioid users were 35% more likely to be unhappy with their sex life and 82% more likely to have less desire.

“Patients suffering from chronic non-cancer pain should be aware that it can have a negative impact on their sexual desire and satisfaction with sex life, and that using opioids, especially long-term, can add an additional negative impact on their sex life,” lead author Hanne Birke, an oncology researcher at Rigshospitalet (Copenhagen University Hospital) told Reuters.

Only 57 percent of people on long-term opioids reported having sex during the past year.  That compares to 62% of pain patients on short-term opioids, 68% of pain sufferers not taking opioids and 77% of people who were pain free.  

Short-term opioid use was defined as having one prescription filled in the previous year, while long-term use was having opioid prescriptions dispensed in at least six months during the previous year.

Chronic pain and opioid use has long been linked to sexual health problems.

“Chronic pain ‘highjacks’ sensory nerve fibers, thereby making it harder or impossible for pleasurable stimuli to elicit a response,” said Anne Murphy, a researcher at Georgia State University in Atlanta, who wasn’t involved in the study. “On top of that, opiates suppress the activation of sensory nerve fibers which would have an obvious impact on sexual pleasure.”

But many people who were pain free also reported sexual health issues. About 19% of men and 14% of women without chronic pain were unhappy with their sex lives. And 7% of men and 19% of women without pain reported a lack of sexual desire.

Can Marijuana Improve Your Sex Life?

By Roger Chriss, Columnist

A new study by researchers at Stanford University, published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, shows that marijuana use is associated with greater sexual frequency in both men and women. There has been a lot of enthusiasm about the findings, but relatively little understanding of what the research actually says.

Marijuana has intriguing medical potential, from symptom relief in terminal cancer patients to pain management in chronic conditions. And the possibility that it may improve sexual function is enticing in particular for people with health problems. Thus, it’s important to understand what any new results are really saying. So let’s use this paper as a case study on how to read a research paper.

We start with the study methodology. Because the gold-standard of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized prospective trial is not possible with marijuana, the authors had to engage in data mining, the process of using an existing data set to ask new questions.

For a data source, the study uses the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large database assembled by the CDC. The study results were drawn from an analysis of 28,176 women (average age = 29.9 years) and 22,943 men (average age = 29.5).

It is important not to be impressed by these large numbers. Increasing a sample size beyond a certain point offers no additional reliability, and it may create more problems with confounding variables and hidden biases. Because the authors did not assemble this data themselves, there was no way for them to address these issues.


A sanity check of the data is the next step. This study looks at sexual frequency at various levels of marijuana use. A check of the International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality shows that “on average, men and women engage in sexual intercourse approximately six times per month.”

This is consistent with the Stanford study findings, but with a caveat: recall of the previous month’s sexual activity or marijuana use may be imperfect. Some researchers try to get around this problem by having participants keep written logs or by using apps, but this study did not.

It is also important to keep in mind that the study variable of sexual frequency is an imperfect number. You cannot have sex 0.73 times!  Any change in sexual frequency has to occur in increments of one per unit time. In this study, the unit time is a 4-week period. The increase reported in the study represents the smallest possible increase, or one additional sexual event. The authors found that regular marijuana use was associated with one more sexual event every four weeks.

The study mentions the use of the NSFG data as a limitation. The authors note that “survey responses were self-reported and represent participants only at a specific point in time.” But there is a deeper issue here. As noted above, the data set may contain flaws, biases, or other issues beyond the control or even the awareness of the authors. Formally speaking, randomness is lost. In election polls, for instance, pollsters follow strict protocols to ensure randomness because doing so makes for more reliable results.

In practice, large data sets often contain many associations because life is complicated and even seemingly simple activities like sex are subject to a variety of influences. So posing questions to large data sets requires caution, or as statisticians sometimes say, “give me a large enough data set and I can prove anything.”

The Stanford study’s conclusion is that a “positive association between marijuana use and sexual frequency is seen in men and women across all demographic groups.”

But in an interview with The Washington Post, the authors qualify that by noting that the study “doesn't say if you smoke more marijuana, you'll have more sex,” appropriately warning that correlation is not causation.

Spurious Correlations

But the mantra of “correlation does not imply causation” is simplistic. In reality, association does not even imply direction. It is equally reasonable here to say that greater sexual frequency is associated with increased marijuana use. But changing the word order alters the implication.

The second problem is that the association may be meaningless, an artifact of our data-rich world. Such spurious correlations can even be a source of entertainment. For instance, coital frequency may be correlated with living in an even-numbered zip code or marijuana use may be associated with banana slug activity.

Not to make light of overdoses, but there is even a spurious correlation between deaths caused by opioids and the price of potato chips:



These associations could be tested, but a positive result would probably not get the kind of media attention the Stanford study is receiving.

Moreover, sexual activity is influenced by a wide range of factors. It is possible that regular marijuana users have a lifestyle more conducive to sex, making lifestyle a lurking variable that affects both sexual frequency and marijuana use. Or it may be that daily marijuana users have more disposable income, more time to enjoy the effects of marijuana, and a more drug-tolerant work situation. In this case, marijuana use would act as a proxy for other potentially causal factors that influence coital frequency.

Because these issues are always found in large data sets, the potential for finding meaningless associations is ever-present. Or as statisticians say, “if you torture the data enough, you can get it to confess to anything.”

Thus, a study of this nature has inherent limitations that mean its results must be interpreted with caution. As the authors note in their conclusion, “the effects of marijuana use on sexual function warrant further study.”

So our final task is to consider what would constitute further study. Obviously, this result needs to be confirmed, ideally with a prospective study that controls for confounders. If the result is reproduced, then the hard work of identifying the causes begins. Once identified and confirmed through human testing, then and only then can we say that marijuana increases sexual frequency. For now the best we can do is read such studies with care and caution.

Roger Chriss.jpg

Roger Chriss lives with Ehlers Danlos syndrome and is a proud member of the Ehlers-Danlos Society.

Roger is a technical consultant in Washington state, where he specializes in mathematics and research.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Let’s Talk About Sex, Baby — and Chronic Pain

By Crystal Lindell, Columnist

The thing that nobody tells you about Cymbalta is that it takes a machine gun to your sex drive. Seriously. When I was on it, I was so repulsed by sex that I started to think maybe I was legitimately asexual. 

I mean, when the doctor hands you the prescription, it would be nice if they threw in something like, “BTW, you’re never going to want to make passionate love while you’re on this medicine.”

But of course, doctors never tell you stuff like that. And God forbid they give you a handout of some sort that maybe mentions it. No, they just leave you to Google “asexual” at 1 a.m. on a Tuesday night when you realize you’re identifying a little too much with Sheldon on the Big Bang Theory.

Don’t get me wrong, I have definitely been in such tragic levels of pain, that if someone had asked me if I wanted to give up sex so I could feel better, I wouldn’t have even thought twice about cutting off my own vagina and handing it over. 

But the thing is nobody asked me. They didn’t tell me I might have to make that sacrifice when they put me on Cymbalta. So I didn’t even know it was happening. And that’s when you get to some pretty dark places. 

Thankfully, I’ve since gone off Cymbalta, and my sex drive came back like a freight train. 

But that doesn’t mean there aren’t other issues related to sex and chronic pain.

Like when you have stabbing rib pain on your right side, so you can only tolerate sports bras, and then he goes to unhook the back, and it kills the mood because there is no hook in the back of a sports bra. And he’s mad that you’re dressed like someone planning to run a 5K, and then you’re mad that he’s mad that you’re dressed like someone planning to run a 5K, and so you just leave.

Or when he wants to cuddle, and you have to explain that, “Sorry, I can’t lay on my right side because when I do it feels like someone is jack hammering into my bones through the mattress. Hope that’s not a deal breaker!”

Not to mention the fact that when you’re in physical pain, the last thing you feel is sexy. And you most certainly don’t feel like having anyone touch you ever. 

First, there’s just the literal pain that can come from someone passionately throwing you against the wall, or even a pillow top mattress for that matter. When you feel like you always have a broken rib, even passionate love making can make you wince. 

Then, there’s the fact that the pain probably keeps you from showering as often as most Americans believe is normal, which means you probably smell, which means you’re probably not feeling very romantic. 

And of course, there’s the side effects from the medications, which make you gain weight, sleep all day, and zone out in front of YouTube videos about makeup while you simultaneously lose the ability to actually wear makeup. 

Not to mention the fact that it’s just really hard to make love to someone, while you yell things like, “OH GOD! OH GOD! OH GOD!  IF YOU TOUCH MY RIGHT SIDE AGAIN I’M GOING TO STAB YOU TO DEATH!’ or “YES! YES! YES! I NEED YOU TO AVOID MY CHEST AREA AT ALL COSTS!”

That’s the kind of stuff that can turn an evening of “Netflix and Chill” into an evening where you actually watch Netflix and chill. 

But even with so many things working against the sex lives of those with chronic pain, that doesn’t mean people should give up. 

For one, that old saying about how, “You can have great sex without having a great relationship, but you can’t have a great relationship without great sex,” is actually pretty true in my experience. Having sex is an important part of being a healthy couple. Of course, that doesn’t mean partners shouldn’t be understanding of the situation, and our pain levels. What it does mean is that avoiding sex, regardless of how legitimate the reasons for doing so are, will likely put a strain on your love life. 

Also, sex is just a good thing to have in general. It helps your mood, it can be a great pain reliever and stress reducer. And, you know, it’s fun.

So I don’t think patients should just resign themselves to the idea that having chronic pain means giving up good sex for the rest of their lives.

Unfortunately, I don’t have magical solutions to offer people with chronic pain struggling to work sex back into their daily life. But there are a couple things you can at least try.

Frist, there’s always the obvious “talk to your doctor” advice. Yes, I know that conversation can be awkward — both for the patient and the physician. If you’re up for the conversation though, I definitely recommend it. Your doctor might be able to recommend other medications that don’t kill your sex drive, some less painful positions or other techniques to help you out.

In the end though, I honestly think the best thing you can do is be open about the issues without whomever you’re making love to. Just like with anything, talking about what’s going on usually does the most good.

And if you both decide that maybe you can try to get a wire-free bra with a hook in that back because that’s what he’s into, as long as he promises to never touch your right boob, then great! Or, if you decide that having sex just isn’t worth the pain, then that’s great too.

After all, there’s always Better-than-Sex cake in a pinch.

Crystal Lindell is a journalist who lives in Illinois. She loves Taco Bell, watching "Burn Notice" episodes on Netflix and Snicker's Bites. She has had intercostal neuralgia since February 2013.

Crystal writes about it on her blog, “The Only Certainty is Bad Grammar.”

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represent the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.