FDA Approves New Lilly Migraine Drug

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Eli Lilly’s Reyvow (lasmiditan) for the treatment of migraine with or without aura. Reyvow is the first migraine treatment that acts by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain and depressing central nervous system activity. 

“Reyvow is a new option for the acute treatment of migraine, a painful condition that affects one in seven Americans,” Nick Kozauer, MD, acting deputy director of the FDA’s Division of Neurology Products, said in a statement. “We know that the migraine community is keenly interested in additional treatment options, and we remain committed to continuing to work with stakeholders to promote the development of new therapies for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine.”  

Migraine affects a billion people worldwide and about 36 million adults in the United States, according to the American Migraine Foundation. In addition to headache pain and nausea, migraine can cause blurriness, light sensitivity and visual disturbances known as aura.

The effectiveness of Reyvow tablets was demonstrated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies involving nearly 3,200 patients experiencing a migraine attack. In one study, only about 32% of patients receiving 200mg of Reyvow were pain free after two hours, but that compares to 15% taking a placebo — enough to be considered statistically significant.

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"As a physician who specializes in the treatment of migraine and headache disorders, I commonly treat patients who are looking for acute treatment options that offer the chance for pain freedom during migraine attacks. This approval is especially significant because migraine pain is so often severe and incapacitating," said Jan Brandes, MD, a neurology professor at Vanderbilt University and paid consultant to Lilly.

The most common side effects for patients in the Reyvow clinical trials were dizziness, fatigue, a burning or prickling sensation in the skin (paresthesia), and sedation.  An FDA warning label will caution patients not to drive or operate machinery for at least eight hours after taking Reyvow. The drug should also not be taken with alcohol or other serotonin depressants.

Reyvow is not approved for the preventive treatment of migraine. Lilly did not say when Reyvow would be available or how much it would cost.

In recent years, the FDA has approved several new migraine therapies, including injectable drugs to prevent migraine and neuromodulation devices that use electrical pulses to disrupt pain signals.

Migraine can be triggered by various factors including stress, hormonal changes, bright or flashing lights, lack of food or sleep, and diet. Women are three times more likely to suffer from migraine than men.

Experts Advise Against It, But Opioids Often Used to Treat Migraine

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Too many Americans are still using opioids to treat their migraine headaches, according to migraine experts who say opioids are generally not recommended for migraines and could even cause more headaches.

In a recent online survey of 20,000 migraine patients, 19 percent said they were currently using opioids to treat migraine -- up from the 16 percent reported in 2009 in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study.

“These data show that, despite the known potential risks of using opioids for migraine, far too many continue to do so,” said Sait Ashina, MD, a neurologist and Director of the Comprehensive Headache Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. “It’s concerning that people may be using these drugs in place of conventional therapies proven to be safer and more effective for migraine.”

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Clinical guidelines from the American Headache Society (AHS) encourage the use of triptans and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen as first-line treatment for migraine.

Because opioids can increase the frequency of migraines or lead to medication overuse headaches, opioids are typically reserved for patients when triptans and NSAIDs don’t work or are contraindicated. 

The survey found that nearly a quarter of the patients who reported four or more migraines per month were using opioids to treat pain, and more than half of them reported taking opioids at least once to treat a migraine headache. 

The survey is part of the ObserVational Survey of the Epidemiology, tReatment and Care Of MigrainE (OVERCOME) study, which is funded by Eli Lilly. The company makes Emgality, an injectable non-opioid drug that reduces the frequency of migraine.

“OVERCOME showed that, overall, opioids are being used in place of medicines that are approved and indicated to treat migraine – particularly among those who experience migraine headaches more frequently,” said Ashina, who is a paid consultant for Eli Lilly.

A separate analysis of over 21,000 migraine sufferers in the OVERCOME study found that patients who used opioids were more likely to experience depression or anxiety when compared to those who never used opioids.

Opioids Overprescribed to Children

Other studies presented last month at the American Headache Society’s annual meeting indicate that opioids are overprescribed to children with migraine.

In an analysis of nearly 14,500 emergency room visits by adolescents and young adults with migraine, opioids were ordered 23% of the time within 12 hours of admission. In more than half of those cases (58%), an opioid was ordered as first-line therapy. Rates of opioid prescribing for migraine did significantly decrease during the study period, from 2010 to 2016.

Another study presented at the AHS annual meeting found that nearly one of every six children who receives medication for migraine or headache during their first medical visit was prescribed an opioid. The rates were even higher among older teens, with one of every four prescribed an opioid during the 2009 to 2014 study period.

“Opioids are generally not recommended for the treatment of migraine due to limited evidence for efficacy, the risk of dependence and the evidence that opioid treatment is a risk factor for headache exacerbation. The very medication that relieves pain short term may lead to the onset of chronic migraine,” said Richard Lipton, MD, a former president of the American Headache Society.

Migraine affects a billion people worldwide and about 36 million adults in the United States, according to the American Migraine Foundation. In addition to headache pain and nausea, migraine can cause vomiting, blurriness or visual disturbances, as well as sensitivity to light and sound. Women are three times more likely to suffer from migraine than men.

New Safety Concerns for Osteoarthritis Drug

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Disappointing results from a Phase 3 clinical study are raising new safety concerns about an experimental class of pain-relieving drugs once considered a promising alternative to opioids.

Pfizer and Eli Lilly say 6.3% of osteoarthritis patients taking a 5 mg dose of tanezumab experienced rapidly progressive osteoarthritis in their joints. There was significant improvement in their pain and physical function, but the patients’ overall assessment of their condition was no better than those treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Patients taking a lower 2.5 mg dose of tanezumab did not have any significant improvement in their pain, quality of life or overall condition. And 3.2% experienced rapidly progressive osteoarthritis.

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“We are analyzing these findings in the context of the recent Phase 3 results as we assess potential next steps for tanezumab,” Ken Verburg, Pfizer Global Product Development, said in a statement. “We plan to review the totality of data from our clinical development program for tanezumab with regulatory authorities.”

Tanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein that increases as a result of injury, inflammation or chronic pain. Tanezumab binds to NGF and inhibits pain signals from reaching the brain.

Tanezumab was considered so promising a therapy that it was given fast track designation from the FDA in 2017, a process that speeds up the development of new therapies to treat serious conditions.

Ironically, it was the FDA that slowed the development of NGF inhibitors in 2010 because of concerns that tanezumab made osteoarthritis worse in some patients. Most clinical studies of tanezumab did not resume until 2015.

The reappearance of the same safety issue and the marginal pain relief provided by tanezumab could be the last straw for the drug, according to one analyst.

“It is hard for us to imagine how these results could have been much worse. Pfizer indicated that they ‘plan to review the totality of data’ with regulatory authorities, which suggests to us that the co-sponsors will try to find a way to resurrect the program for some subset or sub-population of patients, but recognizes that this result puts the drug’s entire future in doubt,” SVB Leerink research analyst Geoffrey Porges said in a note to clients.

A clinical study of fasinumab, another NGF inhibitor being developed by Teva and  Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, was stopped by the FDA in 2016 after a patient showed signs of severe joint disease. Regeneron and Teva are continuing to study fasinumab in patients with chronic low back pain.

Pfizer and Eli Lilly are also studying tanezumab as a treatment for low back pain, and reported promising results from a Phase 3 trial in February. Rapidly progressive osteoarthritis was also reported in a small number of patients involved in that study.

New Non-Opioid Drug Effective in Treating Low Back Pain

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Pfizer and Eli Lilly have announced positive results from a large Phase 3 study evaluating an experimental non-opioid pain reliever as a treatment for chronic low back pain.

Patients receiving 10 mg injections of tanezumab showed statistically significant improvement in back pain at 16 weeks compared to placebo. A lower dose of tanezumab 5 mg was not as effective. Over 1,800 people with chronic low back pain in North America, Europe and Asia participated in the study.

Tanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein that increases in the body because of injury, inflammation or chronic pain. Tanezumab binds to NGF and inhibits pain signals from muscles, skin and organs from reaching the brain.

"This study demonstrates the potential of tanezumab to treat individuals suffering from moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain who have been unable to achieve relief with currently available medicines," said Ken Verburg, Pfizer’s tanezumab development team leader.

“This is one of the longest studies conducted to date in chronic low back pain. We look forward to further analyzing these results, and believe the data from this study will support our planned future global regulatory submissions in chronic low back pain."

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Pizer and Eli Lilly have also reported positive findings in evaluating tanezumab for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The Food and Drug Administration granted “fast track” designation to tanezumab in 2017 to help speed its development.

Tanezumab has a history of safety concerns. Clinical studies were halted in 2010 after Pfizer reported some osteoarthritis patients receiving the drug had worse symptoms and needed joint replacement surgery. Another safety issue arose in 2012 when tanezumab caused adverse changes in the nervous system of animals.  Most clinical studies of tanezumab did not resume until 2015.

In the current study, rapidly progressive osteoarthritis (RPOA) was observed in 1.4 percent of patients receiving tanezumab and 0.1 percent of patients in the other treatment groups. Joint fractures and total joint replacements were experienced in 0.4 percent and 0.7 percent of tanezumab-treated patients, respectively, while none were observed in the other treatment groups.

In addition to back pain, the ongoing Phase 3 program for tanezumab includes studies in osteoarthritis pain and cancer pain due to bone metastases.

FDA Approves Third Injectable Migraine Drug

By Pat Anson, PNN Editor

Migraine sufferers will soon have another treatment option. Eli Lilly has announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Emgality (galcanezumab), a monthly self-injected drug for the prevention of migraine in adults.

Emgality is the third injectable migraine drug the FDA has approved this year. In May, the agency gave approval to Amgen’s Aimovig (erenumab), the first migraine drug that uses fully human monoclonal antibodies to target receptors in the brain where migraines are thought to originate.  Last week, the FDA approved Teva’s Ajovy, a migraine prevention drug that can be injected monthly or quarterly.

Lilly said the efficacy and safety of Emgality was demonstrated in three Phase 3 clinical trials in patients with episodic or chronic migraine.

Emgality reduced the number of monthly migraine headache days by an average of 4.7 days in patients with episodic migraine and by 4.8 days in patients with chronic migraine.  

Migraine affects a billion people worldwide and about 36 million adults in the United States, according to the American Migraine Foundation. In addition to headache pain and nausea, migraine can cause vomiting, blurriness or visual disturbances, as well as sensitivity to light and sound. Women are three times more likely to suffer from migraine than men.

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“Despite the devastating impact of migraine, only about 10 percent of people living with the disease are currently taking a preventive treatment,” Christi Shaw, president of Lilly Bio-Medicines, said in a statement. “With this approval, we are thrilled to offer a preventive treatment option to adults living with this disease.”

Lilly said Emgality would be available “shortly” at a listed price of $575 for a single injection or $6,900 annually. That introductory price is identical to that of Aimovig and Ajovy, although various discounts or rebates could make the cost lower. Lilly said it would offer Emgality for up to 12 months free to patients with commercial insurance under its patient assistance program.   

“We know the impact high deductible and rising out-of-pocket costs have on families, and Lilly takes seriously our role in ensuring affordable access to Emgality for as many patients as possible,” said Shaw.

Earlier this month, the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use issued a positive opinion of Emgality for the prevention of migraine in adults who have at least four migraine days per month. That positive opinion was referred for final action to the European Commission, which grants drug approval in the European Union.

Positive Findings for New Osteoarthritis Drug

By Pat Anson, Editor

Pfizer and Eli Lilly have announced positive findings in treating osteoarthritis pain with an experimental non-opioid drug that has a history of safety concerns.  

Tanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein that increases in the body because of injury, inflammation or chronic pain. Tanezumab binds to NGF and inhibits pain signals from muscles, skin and organs from reaching the brain.

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In the 16-week clinical study, osteoarthritis patients who were given two injections of tanezumab had significant improvement in their pain, physical function and assessment of their symptoms compared to a placebo. Osteoarthritis is a joint disorder that leads to thinning of cartilage and progressive joint damage.

“There is a substantial need for innovative new treatment options for osteoarthritis, as many patients are unable to find relief with currently available medicines and continue to suffer,” Ken Verburg of Pfizer Global Product Development said in a statement.

“We are encouraged by these results, which speak to the potential of tanezumab as a non-opioid treatment option for pain reduction and improvement in physical function.”

Preliminary safety data showed that tanezumab was generally well tolerated, with about 1% of patients discontinuing treatment due to adverse events. Rapidly progressive osteoarthritis was observed in about 1.5% tanezumab-treated patients, but none in the placebo arm.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted “fast track” designation to tanezumab last year to help speed its development as a new treatment for osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

Ironically, it was the FDA that slowed the development of NGF inhibitors in 2010 after Pfizer reported some osteoarthritis patients receiving tanezumab experienced worsening of their disease and needed joint replacements. Another safety issue arose in 2012 because the drug caused “adverse changes in the sympathetic nervous system of mature animals.”  Most clinical studies of tanezumab did not resume until 2015.

“We look forward to continuing to advance tanezumab in our ongoing global Phase 3 development program, which includes six studies in approximately 7,000 patients with osteoarthritis, chronic low back pain and cancer pain,” said Christi Shaw, senior vice president of Eli Lilly. In studies to date, tanezumab has not demonstrated a risk of addiction, misuse or dependence.

Regeneron recently halted high-dose trials of fasinumab, another NGF inhibitor, because the risk of harm outweighed the benefits of the drug. There is some concern that NGF antibodies work too well and encourage osteoarthritis patients to become more active, which accelerates joint deterioration.

FDA Gives Fast Track Designation to New Pain Med

By Pat Anson, Editor

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted “fast track” designation to a new, non-opioid pain medication for patients with osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain -- even though the drug has a history of safety issues.

Tanezumab is an investigational humanized monoclonal antibody that targets nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein that increases in the body as a result of injury, inflammation or chronic pain. Tanezumab binds to NGF and inhibits pain signals from reaching the spinal cord and brain.

Tanezumab is the first NGF inhibitor to receive fast track designation from the FDA, a process that speeds up the development and review of new therapies to treat serious conditions with unmet medical needs.

“If approved, tanezumab would be the first in a new class of non-opioid chronic pain medications,” said Ken Verburg, Chief Development Officer, Neuroscience & Pain, Pfizer Global Product Development. “We believe it would represent an important medical advance in the treatment of debilitating osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain for patients who do not experience adequate pain relief or cannot tolerate currently available pain medications.”

Pfizer is jointly developing tanezumab with Eli Lilly. The two drug makers are currently recruiting patients for Phase 3 studies of tanezumab in 7,000 patients with osteoarthritis, low back pain or cancer pain. Participants will be injected with tanezumab once every eight weeks for treatment periods ranging from 16 to 56 weeks, followed by a 24-week safety follow-up period.  Results from the clinical trials are not expected until next year.

"It is estimated that there are more than 27 million Americans currently living with osteoarthritis and 23 million living with chronic low back pain, many of whom fail to achieve adequate pain relief despite treatment with various types of pain medications,” said Christi Shaw, Senior Vice President and President, Lilly Bio-Medicines.

“We are committed to offering innovative solutions to people suffering from chronic pain conditions, and look forward to working closely with the FDA to facilitate the development of tanezumab.”

Ironically, it was the FDA that slowed the development of NGF inhibitors in 2010 because of safety concerns. The agency ordered a partial halt to clinical studies after Pfizer said a small number of osteoarthritis patients receiving tanezumab experienced worsening of their disease and needed joint replacements. Another safety issue arose in 2012 because the drug caused “adverse changes in the sympathetic nervous system of mature animals.” 

Most clinical studies of tanezumab did not resume until 2015. Pfizer says the current Phase 3 studies include risk mitigation measures for joint safety and sympathetic nervous system safety.

A clinical study of fasinumab, another nerve growth factor drug being developed by Teva and  Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, was stopped by the FDA last year after a patient showed signs of severe joint disease. Regeneron and Teva said they would redesign the study of patients with chronic low back pain to exclude participants with advanced osteoarthritis.