How West Virginia Became the Epicenter of the Opioid Crisis

By Douglas Hughes, Guest Columnist 

Aggressive promotion by the distributors of OxyContin, the best pain medication ever formulated (when properly used), led to excessive prescribing by West Virginia doctors. 

This caused a methamphetamine drug problem in the state to morph into a prescription opioid epidemic, mostly due to unused opioids squirreled away in medicine cabinets.  Adolescents ignored by their guardians had complementary party favors of these excess opioids. This is why so many families were affected. 

After a few years of this, once the addiction problems were exposed, the excess prescribing stopped. Those desiring to misuse OxyContin went to pain clinics and lied to receive more.  Since we don’t have tachometers on our foreheads to gauge real subjective pain, lying to doctors was effective for many to get drugs to abuse.  

Not wanting to assist pain specialists and willing to deny legitimate intractable pain treatment, the West Virginia legislature passed the “Chronic Pain Clinic Licensing Act.”

When implemented on January 1, 2015, the goal to deny licenses to a dozen new and existing pain clinics was achieved. This left only pills being hoarded in medicine cabinets, which were quickly depleted.  

OxyContin distribution was suspended to pharmacies in most of West Virginia in 2015. 


These two efforts stopped most OxyContin prescribing and decimated legitimate disabled intractable pain sufferers in West Virginia, the state with the highest incidence of industrial and worker compensation injury cases. 

For the sake of argument, let’s estimate pain clinic patients were 50% legitimate pain sufferers and 50% abusers lying in order to get opioids.  Each of those twelve pain clinic closures turned a thousand or more patients onto the streets.  Some wanted to abuse, while others desperately sought to replace critical pain treatment denied to them by state law.  Some turned to street drugs as their answer. 

In 2015, West Virginia police departments reported that pain pills seized from drug arrests fell a remarkable 89 percent. The opioid crisis was shifting rapidly to heroin, as the drug sub-culture always does when a drug source changes. The prescription opioid epidemic in West Virginia essentially ended in 2015.  There was no memo from the CDC.

Those thousands of good and bad patients from pain clinics were both naive to the strength and use of heroin.  Dosing, once regulated by prescription, now was more lethal. Learning how to prepare and inject heroin without becoming infected, overdosing and dying was problematic. There were record overdose deaths in 2015, even though there were fewer pain pills. 

Counterfeit medication and heroin laced with illicit fentanyl appeared and record overdose deaths continued in 2016 and 2017 because there were so many inexperienced street drug users.  

Since 2015, West Virginia has wasted millions of dollars annually chasing imaginary diversion and investigating and prosecuting good physicians. This satisfied everyone except legitimate pain patients, who were left suffering and dying in their beds.  A suicide epidemic ensued.

West Virginia lacks a prevention component to their drug crisis response, which insured the re-occurrence of another epidemic. Apparently, we are satisfied with this catastrophe. May we have another?   


Douglas Hughes is a disabled coal miner and retired environmental permit writer in West Virginia.

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The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

West Virginia Moves to Stop Opioid Madness

By Kenny Brooks, Guest Columnist

When most people think of West Virginia, they think about mountains, coal mines and miners.  The number of coal miners in West Virginia suffering from black lung, cancer and other chronic illnesses plays a significant role in the state's high rate of disability, estimated at nearly 20 percent of the population. 

Many military veterans in West Virginia also suffer from lifelong pain and disability, as do injured public safety employees, police, firefighters and paramedics. I was severely injured as a paramedic in a work related accident and now live with arachnoiditis, a painful inflammation in my spine that will never go away.

All of this pain and disability has a significant impact on our state. The per capita income of West Virginia is only about $37,000 a year, making it one of the poorest states in the union.  About 23% of West Virginians live below the national poverty line.  We rank 5th highest in suicide and have the highest overdose death rate in the country.

West Virginia was one of the first states to crackdown on pill mills and doctors who overprescribe opioids, but opioid overdoses continue rising, especially from heroin, illicit fentanyl and addicts taking pain medication.

The CDC’s opioid prescribing guidelines only made things worse for real pain patients, causing many to be under treated or abandoned by doctors who took an oath to relieve pain and suffering.

West Virginia lawmakers have seen enough of this suffering. In an unprecedented move, the legislature this month passed Senate Bill 339, with the goal of restoring the integrity of chronic pain management in the state.

The bill was introduced by State Senator Tom Takubo, DO, a pulmonary physician who specializes in treating patients suffering from lung and breathing problems.  Dr. Takubo understands the ethical duty to act, and to help alleviate chronic suffering and pain from incurable chronic conditions.

Senate Bill 339 was approved unanimously by both the House and Senate, and was signed this week into law by the governor.  It recognizes that regulations have caused “patients seeking pain treatment to suffer from a lack of treatment options” and that “prescribers should have the flexibility to effectively treat patients who present with chronic pain.”

The bill also establishes a commission -- called the Coalition for Responsible Chronic Pain Management -- to advise the legislature if a “less cumbersome” manner exists to regulate pain care in the state.

The Coalition will consists of the following members:  The Dean of the School of Public Health at West Virginia University, a physician board certified in pain management, three physicians licensed to practice in West Virginia, a licensed pharmacist, a licensed chiropractor, a licensed physical therapist experienced in the area of chronic pain, and a consumer of healthcare services directly impacted by pain clinic regulations – in other words, a pain patient.

We have about a month before the appointments are made and I am hopeful that I will be appointed as the patient representative. I hope to bring to the Coalition not only my experience as a pain patient, but my experience as a paramedic.  I spent many hours in school years ago learning about medical and legal issues, and believe I have a unique perspective to bring to the table.

My goals are simple: to change the regulations and prescribing guidelines back to individualized patient centered care, not addiction centered algorithms. I am also concerned about doctors being afraid to treat pain patients due to legal reprisals.

I hope to bring a voice of reason to the Coalition, and to help other states look at what we are doing in West Virginia to stop the opioid madness.  

Kenny Brooks is an arachnoiditis survivor and former career firefighter in Montgomery County, Maryland.  He loves his family, his church, his dog, his friends, and he feels very blessed to have a great team of medical doctors and pharmacists who understand quality of life medical care. Kenny became more involved in politics following the sad consequences he witnessed in other arachnoiditis patients due to the CDC guidelines. 

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The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

West Virginia Admits Pain Patients Suffering

By Pat Anson, Editor

As Ohio, New Jersey and other states move to put further limits on opioid prescribing, West Virginia is acknowledging that its own efforts may have gone too far.

This week the West Virginia House of Delegates unanimously passed a bill that would create a commission to review state regulations on opioid pain medication and report back to the legislature on ways to make them “less cumbersome.”

Senate Bill 339 calls the abuse of pain medication in West Virginia “a nearly insurmountable plague,” but recognizes that efforts aimed at curbing abuse and overprescribing have “resulted in unforeseen outcomes often causing patients seeking pain treatment to suffer from a lack of treatment options.”

“Effective early care is paramount in managing chronic pain. To that end, prescribers should have the flexibility to effectively treat patients who present with chronic pain. However, there must be a balance between proper treatment for chronic pain and the abuse of the opioids found most effective in its treatment,” the bill states.

The legislation calls for the Dean of the School of Public Health at West Virginia University to serve as chair of the commission, which is to be known as the Coalition for Responsible Chronic Pain Management. Other members of the panel will include a board certified pain specialist, three physicians, a pharmacist, a chiropractor and a pain patient. 

The coalition will meet quarterly to review regulations on physicians and pain clinics, and will advise the legislature on ways to “further enhance the provider patient relationship in the effective treatment and management of chronic pain.”

Because the bill was amended in the House, it now returns to the West Virginia Senate for approval.

In many ways, West Virginia was ground zero for the nation’s overdose epidemic, and was one of the first states to crackdown on pill mills and the overprescribing of pain medication. Fewer opioids are now being prescribed, but West Virginia still leads the nation with the highest overdose death rate in the country.

At least 844 people died of drug overdoses in the state in 2016, a record number, compared to 731 in 2015. As in other parts of the country, addicts in West Virginia have increasingly turned to heroin and illicit fentanyl, which are more potent, dangerous and easier to obtain than prescription painkillers. Over a third of the overdose deaths in West Virginia last year were linked to fentanyl. Most of the deaths involved multiple drugs.   

Ohio Tightens Opioid Regulations

In neighboring Ohio, Gov. John Kasich last week announced new plans to limit opioid prescriptions to just seven days of supply for adults and five days for minors. Doses are also being limited to no more than 30 mg of a morphine equivalent dose (MED) per day.

The new regulations, which are expected to take effect this summer, are more than just guidelines – they are a legal requirement for prescribers. Although only intended for acute pain patients, many chronic pain patients are worried they will lose access to opioid medication.

"Doctors are already feeling this pressure not to prescribe pain medications," Amy Monahan-Curtis told NBC News. "What I am hearing is people are already being turned away. They are not getting medications. They are not even being seen. "

Ohio has been down this path before. In 2012, it began a series of actions to restrict access to pain medication. By 2016, the number of opioid prescriptions in Ohio had fallen 20 percent, or 162 million doses.

As in West Virginia, however, the number of drug overdoses continues to soar. Ohio led the nation with over 3,000 drug overdoses in 2015, with many of those deaths linked to illicit fentanyl and heroin. The situation is so bad that some county coroners are storing bodies in temporary cold storage facilities because they’ve run out of room at the morgue.

Next month new regulations will go into effect in New Jersey that will limit initial opioid prescriptions to just five days of supply. Only after four days have passed can a patient get an additional 25 day supply.

That law is primarily intended for acute pain patients, but many chronic pain patients are worried they’ll be forced to make weekly trips to the doctor and pharmacy for their prescriptions, or not be able to get them at all.

“You can imagine my alarm and fear when I was told yesterday that I will likely have to have the dosage of my medications reduced soon,” said Robert Clayton, a New Jersey man who suffers from chronic back and neck pain.

“This is LUNACY. As a nurse who treats individuals with chronic pain and addiction issues, I can tell you these new laws are going to have catastrophic results. Most of the people abusing opiates and dying are the addicts who abuse heroin and other prescription drugs like benzodiazepines, not the chronic pain patients like myself and the other unfortunate souls who have a genuine need for these drugs through no fault of our own.”

According to a recent survey of over 3,100 pain patients by PNN and the International Pain Foundation, one in five pain patients are hoarding opioid medications because they fear losing access to them.