Few Drugs Effective in Treating Neuropathy Pain

By Pat Anson, Editor

Cymbalta and some other anti-depressants are moderately effective at relieving diabetic nerve pain, according to a new report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

But researchers found little or no evidence that opioids, Lyrica, Neurontin and other widely prescribed medications are helpful in treating neuropathy pain.

Nearly 26 million Americans have diabetes and about half have some form of neuropathy, according to the American Diabetes Association. 

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes nerves to send out abnormal signals. Patients can feel stinging or burning pain, as well as loss of feeling, in their toes, feet, legs, hands and arms.

"Providing pain relief for neuropathy is crucial to managing this complicated disease," said lead author Julie Waldfogel, PharmD, of The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore.

"Unfortunately, more research is still needed, as the current treatments have substantial risk of side effects, and few studies have been done on the long-term effects of these drugs."

In a systematic review of over 100 clinical studies published in the journal Neurology, AHRQ researchers found moderate evidence that the SNRI antidepressants duloxetine (Cymbalta) and venlaxine (Effexor) were effective in reducing neuropathic pain. Nausea, dizziness and somnolence were common side effects of the drugs.

The evidence was weaker for anti-seizure medication such as pregabalin (Lyrica) and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). Common side effects from those drugs are weight gain, dizziness, headache and nausea.

While pregabalin works in the same way as gabapentin (Neurontin) -- both are often used to treat nerve pain -- the reviewers found gabapentin was not more effective than placebo. The seizure drug valproate and capsaicin cream were also found to be ineffective.

Oxycodone was not effective in treating neuropathy pain, and the evidence was weak for two other opioids, tramadol and tapentadol.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved only three medications -- duloxetine, pregabalin and tapentadol -- for diabetic nerve pain. However, many others drugs are prescribed “off label” for the disease.

"We hope our findings are helpful to doctors and people with diabetes who are searching for the most effective way to control pain from neuropathy," said Waldfogel. "Unfortunately, there was not enough evidence available to determine if these treatments had an impact on quality of life.”

Researchers noted that all of the studies were short-term, many for less than three months, and even the most effective drugs had relatively high rates of side effects. They say longer-term studies are needed so that adverse effects and the continued effectiveness of the drugs can be assessed.

Is Cannabis Science's Pain Patch for Real?

By Pat Anson, Editor

A California company that claims to be developing a cannabis-based skin patch to treat chronic pain is “a fundamentally unsound company” with a long history of misleading the public and its own shareholders, according to analysts. The founder and former CEO of Cannabis Science has even accused the company’s current management team of fraud and deception.

At various times in its history, Cannabis Science has gone under the name Patriot Holdings, National Healthcare Technology, Brighton Oil & Gas, and Gulf Onshore. Now it has a slick new website, and is passing itself off as a pharmaceutical development company with a pipeline of cannabis-based drugs to treat asthma, HIV and chronic pain.

“I'm not sure if Cannabis Science is a biotech firm, an oil and gas exploration company, an educational university or a pot distributor, the only thing I am certain of is that Cannabis Science is in the business of moving money from public investors to executives' pockets,” wrote John Brody Gay in a lengthy analysis published by Seeking Alpha, an investing website.

Gay and other analysts say Cannabis Science is a classic “pump and dump” penny stock that produces little revenue, but a steady stream of press releases to promote its business activities, which never seem to come to fruition.

Often other websites are hired by pump and dumpers to publish their press releases or write glowing reviews about a company known as “advertorials.” Others are simply ignorant and don't do their homework. The publicity and fake news generates a brief flurry of interest in the company’s stock, which is when executives and other insiders often sell their shares. By raising the stock price by a few pennies, company insiders can double or triple the value of their holdings.

On November 2, Cannabis Science issued a press release saying it was developing skin patches to treat pain caused by fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy.

"The development of these two new pharmaceutical medicinal applications are just the tip of the iceberg for what we see as the future for Cannabis Science. While we strive to increase our land capacity for growth and facilities to produce our own product to supply our scientists with proprietary materials to make these formulations, we are also busy researching more potential needs for Cannabis related medical applications,” Cannabis Science CEO Raymond Dabney was quoted as saying in the news release.

Dabney is no stranger to accusations of deception and stock manipulation. In 2005, he admitted issuing 22 bogus news releases to promote another penny stock. For that he received a five year trading ban from British Columbia’s Securities Commission, according to Forbes and the Vancouver Sun.

A former CEO and president of Cannabis Science has also accused Dabney of fraud. Steve Kubby and other directors resigned after learning that Dabney, who was then working for Cannabis Science as a consultant, diverted company funds into a private account.

“When it became clear that our company had become entangled in fraud and deception, we demanded answers. Instead, those behind the fraud illegally removed me. Yes, we could have fought it and won, but attorneys repeatedly warned us that it is only a matter of time before the SEC will be investigating the company’s many questionable activities,” said Kubby in the Independent Political Report. “Actually, these guys have done me a great favor, because they have removed me from a stinking mess and assumed the liability for themselves.”

Kubby himself was accused by the company of "using unauthorized company shares as collateral or consideration for his personal gain."

Calls to Cannabis Science and Dabney for comment on the allegations were not returned.

‘Substantial Doubt’ About Company

The bottom line in all of this is that Cannabis Science is nearly broke and considers its own future questionable, which it discloses in its most recent financial statement to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The Company is not currently in good short-term financial standing. We anticipate that we may only generate limited revenues in the near future and we will not have enough positive internal operating cash flow until we can generate substantial revenues,” the company said. “There is substantial doubt as to the Company's ability to continue as a going concern without a significant infusion of capital.”

In the first six months of 2016, Cannabis Science reported revenue of only $5,787, and debt and liabilities of over $5 million.

What the company has plenty of is stock. Nearly two billion shares of Cannabis Science are currently trading on the over-the-counter “pink sheet” market, and the company is authorized to release another billion shares whenever it wants. It pays its executives, debtors and vendors in newly issued shares, which are typically sold at opportune times.  

Chief Financial Officer Robert Kane, for example, was paid with 20,000,000 shares on March 8. In October, Kane sold over 9 million shares for $384,000.

Nice work if you can get it.

With more and more states legalizing both medical and recreational marijuana, the cannabis industry is estimated to be worth $7 billion and growing quickly. So is the opportunity for fraud.

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) warned about a profusion of marijuana stock scams three years ago, advice that still holds true today for investors, as well as pain patients.

“Like many investment scams, pitches for marijuana stocks may arrive in a variety of ways – from faxes to email or text message invitations, to webinars, infomercials, tweets or blog posts,” FINRA said. “The con artists behind marijuana stock scams may try to entice investors with optimistic and potentially false and misleading information that in turn creates unwarranted demand for shares of small, thinly traded companies that often have little or no history of financial success.”

Cannabis Science was out with yet another press release today, this one talking about its plan to build a 33,000 square foot marijuana greenhouse in Nevada. No details were offered on when the greenhouse would be built, how much it would cost, or who would pay for it.

"It is such an incredible feeling to see our great plans finally coming to fruition," Dabney was quoted as saying.

Kratom Helps Relieve My Neuropathy Pain

By Robert Dinse, Guest Columnist

I suffer from diabetic peripheral neuropathy.  I can best describe the pain as something akin to being doused in gasoline and then having a match tossed on me.  Pretty much everything from the neck down at times is involved in severe burning pain.

Over time I've been placed on a number of combinations of anti-depressants and anti-seizure medications with various degrees of effectiveness.
Presently I am on Lyrica and nortriptyline, an anti-depressant.  So far this seems to be the best compromise between sedation and pain.

I actually got slightly better pain control with amitriptyline, another anti-depressant, but nortriptyline helps my mood more and since Lyrica negatively impacts my mood but greatly reduces my pain, this seems to be the best compromise.

With this combination of drugs, my pain is reasonably controlled about six days of the week, but I have periods, usually lasting 3-6 hours, of breakthrough pain in which I'm on fire again.

Kratom provides relief during those times and it does so without getting me high, or noticeably affecting my mental state in any way.  This leaves me almost pain free and totally functional.

robert dinse

robert dinse

There are two other drugs I've found to be helpful for this breakthrough pain. The first is marijuana, which is legal in Washington State but leaves me pretty much non-functional. I cannot drive, nor effectively do my work on enough marijuana to give pain relief.  Marijuana also stimulates my appetite and as a diabetic I need to lose weight, not gain weight.

The other useful drug is tianeptine sodium, but for it to be effective I need about 140 mg, which is higher than the maximum recommended single dose. At that dosage I also build a rapid tolerance.  Not a problem if the pain flare up is short, but if it lasts more than two days, which on rare occasions it does, then tianeptine sodium becomes ineffective. 

Some people get withdrawal symptoms from tianeptine sodium. I am fortunate that I have not ever experienced that, but it's lack of effectiveness if I get a bad flare-up lasting more than two days is its chief drawback.

I do not seem to rapidly build tolerance to kratom, and I've yet to experience any loss of effectiveness.  It doesn't get me high.  I don't get withdrawal symptoms. For my needs it is ideal, yet the DEA wants to take this away.

I wish that doctors and DEA officials could experience neuropathic pain firsthand so they could understand the hell their fouled up policies are putting people through. We have tens of thousands of deaths every year due to alcohol and tobacco, and the 16 alleged kratom deaths in the last five years all involved a mixture of other drugs that were most likely responsible for those deaths.

It is very hard to overdose on kratom because you take too much and you puke it up.  I have experimentally determined the puke up threshold for me is about 12 capsules, and 10 capsules totally relieve my pain with no sense of intoxication or impairment.

I don't know how you could ask a pain reliever to be simultaneously anywhere near as effective or safe as kratom.  Too much aspirin and you bleed to death internally, too much Tylenol and you toast your liver, many other NSAIDS readily available over the counter are bad for your heart.

Problem is, as a natural product, it's not patentable and thus competes with other patentable but much more dangerous and less effective drugs.

Robert Dinse lives in Washington State with his family.

Pain News Network invites other readers to share their stories with us.  Send them to:  editor@PainNewsNetwork.org

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Neuropathy More Damaging Than Previously Thought

By Pat Anson, Editor

A tingling, sometimes painful sensation in the hands and feet – the early stages of small fiber neuropathy -- may be more damaging to the peripheral nervous system than previously thought, according to new research published in JAMA Neurology.

A 3-year study by Johns Hopkins neurologists found that patients with small fiber neuropathy showed unexpected deterioration over the entire length of sensory nerve fibers, not just nerve fibers at the surface of the skin.

“I liken small fiber neuropathy to the canary in the coal mine,” says senior author Michael Polydefkis, MD, professor of neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of the Cutaneous Nerve Lab. “It signals the beginning of nerve deterioration that with time involves other types of nerve fibers and becomes more apparent and dramatically affects people’s quality of life. The results of this new study add urgency to the need for more screening of those with the condition and faster intervention.”

Nearly 26 million people in the United States have diabetes and about half have some form of neuropathy, according to the American Diabetes Association.  Small fiber neuropathy can also be caused by lupus, HIV, Lyme disease, celiac disease or alcoholism.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes nerves to send out abnormal signals. Patients feel pain or loss of feeling in their toes, feet, legs, hands and arms. It may also include a persistent burning, tingling or prickling sensation. The condition can eventually lead to injuries, chronic foot ulcers and even amputations.

Polydefkis and his colleagues found that small fiber nerve damage occurs even in patients with prediabetes, and the early symptoms of burning pain may be less benign than most clinicians think. Routine nerve tests, like nerve conduction, often fail to identify nerve damage because they mostly assess injury to large diameter nerve fibers.

In an effort to measure nerve damage more accurately, Johns Hopkins researchers took small samples of skin — the size of a large freckle — from 52 patients diagnosed with small fiber neuropathy and from 10 healthy controls. Skin samples were taken from the ankle, the lower thigh near the knee and the upper thigh. Three years later, samples from the same area in the same patients were taken for comparison.

Microscopic analysis of the skin samples showed that patients with small fiber neuropathy initially had fewer nerve fibers on the ankle compared to the upper thigh, demonstrating the most nerve damage was further down the leg. But after three years, researchers found that longer nerve fibers were also lost from the lower and upper thighs, something that was not expected.

“We are all taught in medical school that the longest nerves degrade first, and we show that this isn’t always the case,” says lead author Mohammad Khoshnoodi, MD, assistant professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins,

Patients with prediabetes or diabetes had at least 50 percent fewer small nerve fibers in their ankles initially than those participants with an unknown cause for their small fiber neuropathy, indicating these patients started the study with more damage to their small nerve fibers.

The patients with prediabetes continued to have worsening damage to their small nerve fibers over the course of the study, losing about 10 percent of their nerve fiber density each year at all sites tested along the leg. Patients with diabetes also lost similar rates of nerve fibers along the three sites of the leg.

“I expected that people with diabetes would do worse, but I didn’t really expect people with prediabetes to experience a similar rate of degradation of their small nerve fibers,” says Polydefkis.

Researchers caution that their study was small, and that other factors such as high blood sugar, smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, may also have contributed to the decline in nerve fibers.

Power of Pain: NERVEmber

By Barby Ingle, Columnist  

In a few short days Nerve Pain Awareness month begins – a global movement known in the pain community as NERVEmber.

I began the NERVEmber project in 2009 as a way to bring more attention to chronic nerve pain conditions such as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD/CRPS) and diabetic neuropathy. The term NERVEmber is derived from the burning pain people with neuropathy feel, combined with the month of November. 

The Power of Pain Foundation hosts the official NERVEmber project events each year. Since its inception, tens of thousands of nerve pain patients and organizations have signed on to help promote NERVEmber and bring awareness to the 150 plus conditions that have nerve pain as a symptom.  

The color orange is the international color for chronic pain awareness, which also fits right in with the fall colors we typically see.

Our largest spotlight throughout the month shines on RSD, which is one of the most painful conditions known to mankind. Yet, like many chronic pain conditions, RSD is misunderstood, mistreated and often misdiagnosed. 

Each day during the month of NERVEmber the Power of Pain Foundation will present an awareness task that we can all participate in. This year we are also giving away over $1,000 in prizes -- available to anyone who registers to participate and uses special hashtags on social media, completes daily tasks, and hosts or attends an event. The more you participate in official NERVEmber events, the more chances you have to win!

You can bring more awareness to conditions like RSD, CRPS and diabetes by posting every day in NERVEmber using social media tags on your posts such as @powerofpain and #PaintTheWorldOrange. Using these tags will earn participants chances to win some great prizes.

The Power of Pain Foundation and the #NERVEmber project is also supporting the #CRPSdayofaction, #RSDdayofaction, @theproject3x5’s, #OrangeInitiative,  #ColorTheWorldOrange, and #ColourTheWorldOrange. 

Official events include tasks shared on social media, wearing t-shirts, Paint the World Orange, and educational series.

The daily calendar of events are available here on the NERVEmber webpage.

One of our newest additions to the project is #painPOP. We are asking people to get involved by popping a balloon and challenging others to do the same or make a donation to help the Power of Pain Foundation continue our education, awareness and access to care programs.

We are asking participants to text, post or say something similar to, “I have the NERVE to be HEARD!"

We will also be posting educational videos on YouTube and our website. Watching videos and commenting on them gives participants more ways to win great prizes. For #PaintTheWorldOrange, we ask participants to post their #NERVEmber pictures on social media and to share your pics as you #PaintTheWorldOrange. Be sure to hashtag it #NERVEmber #PaintTheWorldOrange to increase awareness and your chances to win POP prizes.

Participants are also invited to create graphics of their own using #NERVEmber and #PaintTheWorldOrange. Don’t forget to WEAR ORANGE all month long! You can upload your orange photos to help us paint the world.

Tens of thousands have participated in past years from around the world and we are expecting even more this year. Don’t miss out on being part of a movement to make a difference.

For more information on NERVEmber visit http://powerofpain.org/nervember

Barby Ingle suffers from Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) and endometriosis. Barby is a chronic pain educator, patient advocate, and president of the Power of Pain Foundation. She is also a motivational speaker and best-selling author on pain topics.

More information about Barby can be found at her website.

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Wear, Tear & Care: The Quell Pain Relief Device

By Jennifer Kain Kilgore, Columnist

When presented with the Quell pain relief device, people make one of two assumptions about me: 1.) I injured my knee, or 2.) I am a paroled felon wearing a very forgiving Velcro GPS.

As I said in my recent guest column, I have made it my mission to test as many pain relief products and therapies as possible. Some of them might be familiar to you; others will be of the “new and bizarre” variety. Whatever they are, I will be your Friendly Neighborhood Guinea Pig and review them for your convenience. I only draw the line at “Made for TV” products that are out to swindle the desperate consumer.

Pain patients are certainly desperate. We have a constant refrain humming through our bodies that plays a different tune for each person. Doctors are the musicians taught to hear those tunes -- but how can they possibly learn all the music? How can they hear your specific song and have the knowledge necessary to fix it?

The problem is that sometimes they cannot. They are deaf to your pain, just like that one whale who sings higher than every other whale -- none of them can hear her.

Thus far, doctors have been unable to hear the song that thrills along my nerve endings. This leaves me with no choice but to fend for myself. I could take the route at which they have hinted: find some street drugs and wait for the undertow to take me (not that this is the problem the media makes it out to be). Or I could travel a different road and at the same time realize that this life of mine includes pain. If I can’t get rid of it, I can at least muffle it.

image courtesy of neurometrix

image courtesy of neurometrix

As I said recently in my blog -- Wear, Tear, & Care -- I have been trying the Quell pain relief device, which is made in the great state of Massachusetts (i.e., my backyard). I have been using it every day for more than a month. Here are my findings:

  • It absolutely works. I have been wearing it for 35 days. I assume there was some psychosomatic effect at first because I was so excited to try the device after months of hype. Once the initial thrill wore off, I was left with the knowledge that, yes, I have reduced my number of Motrin from 16 a day to four, give or take. I am still on Cymbalta and Lyrica for pain control and situational depression, though I can now contemplate reducing the Lyrica entirely. Before, that was not even a possibility.
  • Wearing any kind of medical device during the summer is difficult. I can make the Stride of Pride and show if off with a skirt or shorts; otherwise I have to find pants under which the device can comfortably fit. This means that a good portion of my wardrobe (leggings, skinny jeans, etc.) is not compatible with the Quell. This is a minor concern.
  • The Quell is $249.00. Replacement electrodes cost $30 and last for two weeks. I have worn mine for longer than that because A.) I can, and B.) I’m cheap. The electrodes break down quickly, but as a whole they are more durable than traditional electrodes and do not irritate my skin. With the EMPI device, the electrodes left blisters on my back.
  • The iPhone app is quite lovely. It has a countdown clock so you can see how long the therapy has lasted or how far away it is. I have become adept at the internal calculation of 60 minutes on, 60 minutes off.
  • Unlike other TENS devices I have tried, the stimulation is not distracting, so wearing it at the office is fine.

This is all well and good. But how does the Quell work?

According to their research paper presented to the FDA, the Quell works not unlike other devices that latch onto a dense cluster of nerves in the upper calf. Generally it is best for lower-body pain (sciatica and the like), diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia. I myself have fibromyalgia-ish symptoms, since my pain radiates all over my body. However, I apparently do not actually have the inflammation that is fibro’s hallmark. Doctors will only commit to “chronic pain syndrome.” Since the device works for me, I can say confidently that it treats more than those three conditions.

The Quell is twice as strong as conventional TENS units, does not irritate the skin like traditional electrodes, is less conspicuous, has a mobile app, and can be worn at night. (They say it can be worn at night; I personally found the stimulation too distracting.) It activates endogenous opioids in the body (natural opioids, to say it in English), a different system than the one on which prescription opiates work.

It is, simply put, a wearable intensive nerve stimulator that follows the Pain Gate Theory: The impulses generated by the Quell block pain signals from reaching the brain. As it was cleared to be sold over-the-counter, it is currently not covered by insurance.

I know you pain patients out there loathe the numbers system (What is your pain on a scale of 1 to 10?). I also despise it; this is the only one that has come close to working for me. That’s why I have created a new system. Instead of assigning an arbitrary number to my pain, I am going to tell you what I can do now that I couldn’t do before.

1. I can cut down my daily over-the-counter medication.

2. I can walk for longer periods of time (36 days ago I could walk about 10 minutes before starting to limp; now I can make it almost 30 minutes).

3. I can sit for longer periods of time during the work day (prior to the Quell I’d last 10 minutes before having to get up and move around; now I can make it to 30 before movement becomes necessary).

4. I can focus better on immediate tasks.

5. I have more energy during the daytime, which makes me more social. I have been hanging out with friends more. However, I still practice the chronic pain version of sundowning in the evenings (i.e., I crash).

6. I have been able to resume my almost-daily yoga practice. I even did a 55-minute video the other day (which was   Aroga Yoga’s yoga class for those with chronic illness).

7. I have been able to resume my aqua aerobics practice two to three times per week.

8. I wear my emergency back brace less frequently.

9. I have fewer flares.

FINAL DIAGNOSIS: The Quell device has worked brilliantly for me. While it doesn’t get rid of all the pain I feel, it dampens enough of it so that I can more fully live my life. I hope that it can bring others as much relief.

Jennifer Kain Kilgore is an attorney in the Greater Boston area who also works as a writer and editor in her spare time.  She has chronic back and neck pain after two car accidents. 

You can read more about J.W. on her blog, Wear, Tear, & Care.  

The information in this column should not be considered as professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It is for informational purposes only and represents the author’s opinions alone. It does not inherently express or reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of Pain News Network.

Marijuana Effective for Diabetic Neuropathy Pain

By Pat Anson, Editor

New research shows that inhaled medical marijuana can significantly reduce pain from diabetic neuropathy within minutes of treatment.

The study, published in The Journal of Pain, also found there was a dose dependent reduction in pain depending on the strength of marijuana used.

Researchers at the University of California San Diego followed 16 patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a double-blind study as they were exposed to low, medium and high doses of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive compound in marijuana that makes people “high.”

Patients used a Volcano vaporizer to inhale marijuana with 1%, 4% and 7% THC, as well as a placebo. A vaporizer was used because it is less harmful than smoking and delivers THC into the bloodstream rapidly.

“We hypothesized that inhaled cannabis would result in a dose-dependent reduction in spontaneous and evoked pain with a concomitant effect on cognitive function,” said lead author Mark Wallace, MD, professor of anesthesiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine. 

Results showed that the highest dose of THC reduced pain by nearly 70%, with the analgesic effect starting within minutes of inhaling and reaching its peak about an hour after treatment. The analgesic effect of the low and medium doses of THC was slightly lower.

All of the patients experienced either euphoria or somnolence, regardless of the dose, with modest effects on attention, memory and impairment.

“These findings along with previous studies suggest that cannabis might have analgesic benefit in neuropathic pain syndromes, including treatment-refractory DPN,” said Wallace.

Nearly 26 million people in the United States have diabetes and about half have some form of neuropathy, according to the American Diabetes Association.  Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes nerves to send out abnormal signals. Patients feel burning, tingling or prickling sensations in their toes, feet, legs, hands and arms.

There are only two drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat DPN -- Cymbalta and Lyrica – and many patients say they don’t work or have unpleasant side effects.

Marijuana Helps Heal Broken Bones

Meanwhile, researchers in Israel have discovered that a compound in marijuana can help heal fractures and rebuild bones.

In an animal study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, researchers at Tel Aviv University reported that cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) – a non-psychoactive ingredient in marijuana – significantly enhanced the healing process in rats with broken legs.

Earlier studies by the same research team found that cannabinoid receptors in the human body stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone loss. The findings suggest that cannabinoid based drugs could be used to treat osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases.

"The clinical potential of cannabinoid-related compounds is simply undeniable at this point," said Dr. Yankel Gabet of the Bone Research Laboratory at the Department of Anatomy and Anthropology at Tel Aviv University.

The researchers injected one group of rats with CBD alone and another with a combination of CBD and THC. They found that CBD by itself provided the most therapeutic benefit.

"We found that CBD alone makes bones stronger during healing, enhancing the maturation of the collagenous matrix, which provides the basis for new mineralization of bone tissue," said Gabet.

"Other studies have also shown CBD to be a safe agent, which leads us to believe we should continue this line of study in clinical trials to assess its usefulness in improving human fracture healing.”